Everyone has their microscopes out looking for the origins of COVID-19. It may be helpful to back up and look at the big picture to find where to put the microscopes. The bigger picture suggests that several viruses may have been deliberately released over the decades. This article is not a proof of such a theory, but it is evidence that makes me suspect so. There is a lot more that I will put in this reference base over time. I consider this to be a parent reference base that others can refer to and write articles. If you have any suggestions on some areas of research that you would like to see included, you can let me know on here, (WordPress), Twitter, or my Facebook group.

1971. Gerald Durrell, a British naturalist, opened a branch of Wildlife Preservation Trust International in the United States. (The entire chronology of how EcoHealth Alliance came to be is an area of research that I will include in future updates).

1994. Hendra Virus outbreak, Australia. Here are some facts taken from a podcast called “How it all started.:” A mare named Drama Series fell ill and died in a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. 20 race horses subsequently fell ill, 13 died. A trainer died when the disease jumped to humans. Hume Field was asked to investigate the deaths. He captured animals in a field where Drama Series was grazing to try and find the origin of the virus. He found that a species of bat called Flying Fox that had antibodies of the same virus. They named the virus Hendra virus after Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane. Wired reports that the virus does not transmit easily between humans.

1996-2000. Shi Zhengli works on and receives her Ph.D in Virology fromMontpellier University II, France. Zhengli “is said to be as fluent in French as in English.” Prior to working on her Ph.D she worked at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. She returned to WIV after receiving her Ph.D and initially focused her work on viruses in crabs and shrimp. Science

1997. The Consortium for Conservation Medicine was established in 1997. Borgen Project.

1997. In 1997, an avian influenza A virus of subtype H5N1 first demonstrated its capacity to infect humans after causing disease outbreaks in poultry in Hong Kong SAR, China. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

19971999. Nipah Virus, Malaysia. Facts taken from video below. Nipah Virus kills 40% of those it infects. The virus had likely been around for millions of years, but it only killed first person in 1997.  All of the victims were near pig farms.   Investigations determined the virus was in pigs.  Malaysia slaughtered all of the pigs, and 2 years later the virus was gone. 

1998. Peter Daszak becomes a guest researcher at the CDC. The CDC says a guest researcher allows “qualified research investigators to use CDC facilities to take part in CDC research investigations or carry out their own research.” Daszak says this is when he began specializing in bat viruses. Daszak said he got his first “R01” around this time for the Nipah Virus. (Note: details needed). Daszak said he “developed a multidisciplinary approach combining fieldwork, phylogenetics, virology, and mathematical modeling to isolate and characterize NiV from bats, analyze transmission dynamics, and identify the cause of its emergence.” I’m thinking he didn’t develop any mathematical models himself. I think he brought his theories and knowledge on how viruses “jumped” between species and the CDC modeled it for him mathematically. That’s a guess. In any case this mathematical spillover model would later become the basis for USAID’s “PREDICT” program. Further information from Daszak:

“Since working at the CDC Pathology Activity in 1998 during the Nipah virus outbreak, I have specialized in the ecology of viruses emerging from bats. Under my first Nipah virus R01, I developed a multidisciplinary approach combining fieldwork, phylogenetics, virology, and mathematical modeling to isolate and characterize NiV from bats, analyze transmission dynamics, and identify the cause of its emergence.”  BIO SKETCH: “Guest Researcher, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)” Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, page 24

Around 1998. “Previous experience of modeling disease emergence: Our group has used mathematical models to test hypotheses on zoonotic disease emergence for over 15 years. We use computational models that are tailored for the specific pathogen type or combination of hosts involved, and parameterize these with extremely detailed datasets specific for the emergence event. We then run simulations to test hypotheses on the spillover of viruses and the emergence of zoonoses. For Nipah virus (NiV), another bat-borne zoonosis, we obtained data from pig production facilities in Malaysia ( 110, 111), from experimental infection of bats and in vitro under BSL-4 conditions for viral transmission parameters ( 112, 113). We used this approach to demonstrate the cause of NiV emergence ( 111). We have successfully used similar approaches to demonstrate viable causal mechanisms for the emergence of Hendra virus ( 114), Avian influenza ( 115-117) and West Nile virus ( 118-120). Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, page 124

1999. Peter Daszak’s bio says he was awarded a “Meritorious service award” by the CDC in 1999. I can’t find any information on this award. I can’t find a list of other people awarded this type of award, or any information on an award given to Peter Daszak.

2000. Peter Daszak’s bio sketch says he was “Keynote speaker Merieux Foundation Conference on Emerging paramyxoviruses, France (2000).” Source: Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, NIAID grant 2014.

2000. Shi Zhengli receives her Ph.D in Virology fromMontpellier University II, France.

Approximately June 5, 2001. Peter Daszak begins a “collaboration” with China. From notes in his Biographical Sketch Daszak had a “collaboration” with China at a “high level” for “12 years” previous to the date June 5, 2013. Daszak said he has a “proven capacity to conduct disease surveillance in humans and wildlife in the markets where SARS emerged, and where we have collaborated at a high level for 12 years.”

September 11, 2001. Never Forget

September 18, 2001. Soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, letters laced with anthrax began appearing in the U.S. mail. Five Americans were killed and 17 were sickened in what became the worst biological attacks in U.S. history. FBI Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation

October 16, 2002. Two of the nation’s top military and civilian medical research institutes unveiled plans yesterday to work together on a huge expansion of high-security laboratories at Fort Detrick to devise better defenses against bioterrorism and emerging diseases. The first stage will be construction, beginning in 2004, of a $105 million laboratory equipped to handle the deadliest organisms in existence, including the Ebola virus.  The so-called Biosafety Level 4 lab will be operated by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, whose main campus is at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda.  After the NIAID lab is built, officials plan to seek roughly $1 billion to build new laboratories for the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, the top military biodefense center. … The plans at Fort Detrick are only a small part of an unprecedented national building boom in bioterrorism research, set off by the Bush administration’s decision to quadruple biodefense funding to nearly $6 billion a year.  The expansion was prompted by the anthrax-laced letters that killed five people and shut down federal buildings last year.  In addition to the Fort Detrick plans, a consortium including the University of Maryland at Baltimore and the Johns Hopkins University plans to compete for NIAID funding to become a “Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense.” … They note that FBI investigators apparently believe the anthrax attacks were most likely carried out by an American with ties to the existing U.S. biodefense program. Fort Detrick is the main repository of the Ames strain of anthrax used in the attacks, though it has been used in at least two dozen other labs. … But Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of NIAID, said the rapid expansion is critical if the country is to be defended against terrorism.  “Biodefense research involves very small amounts of [dangerous] material,” Fauci said. “We’re trying to do research to protect the population, not to make weapons.” PLANS FOR FORT DETRICK LAB EXPANSION

November 2002. SARS-Coronavirus first reported in Guangdong Province, China. Daszak, Zhengli, Hume Field and Linfa Wang report: Because of the sudden and unpredictable nature of the SARS outbreaks that started in November 2002 in southern People’s Republic of China, structured and reliable epidemiologic studies to conclusively trace the origin of SARS-CoV were not conducted. Review of bats and SARS.

Spring 2003. This spring, scientists at the new Jerome L. and Dawn Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory, headed by Dr. Ian Lipkin, developed a test for SARS, and Dr. Lipkin flew to China to donate 10,000 SARS test kits. He quickly established that test as one of a handful that are widely used for the virus, and himself as an adviser to the Chinese government. … A year ago, the Greene Laboratory of Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health did not exist; today, the stuff of nightmares and headlines resides there — SARS, West Nile virus, Bornavirus, anthrax. With remarkable speed, the lab has helped turn Mailman into a major player in research on the infectious disease outbreaks and bioterror threats that have been the focus of the world’s attention in the last few years. … ”They’ve always been important, but their standing has been increasing and they’ve acquired enormous talent and resources,” said John S. Mackenzie, an Australian microbiologist and scientific consultant to the World Health Organization, who led the first Western team to investigate SARS in China. ”They’ve become a leader in the field of early disease detection and rapid diagnosis.’On the Front Lines of the Virus War; Inside a Columbia Lab, Infectious Diseases Are All the Rage

Late 2003. H5NI Influenza, “bird flu,” spreads out of China to the world.

https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

2004-2005. Google funds Peter Daszak. Ian Lipkin: Peter and I had an award together from Google dot org that was designed to address proactive some of these things. And we actually set up outposts for this sort of disease monitoring. One was in Bangladesh. That system has become quite robust. The other one was in Sierra Leone. … After 3 or 4 years, when Google decided they no longer wanted to support this organization, so as a result this whole thing collapsed. C-SPAN recording of Where Will The Next Pandemic Come From? conference (Transcript begins 1:21:55). Related background: Google went public in 2004. Sergei Brin, Larry Page, and Eric Schmidt of Google were associated with Jeffrey Epstein in 2004. Jeffrey Epstein funded the Program for Evolutionary Dynamics at Harvard in 2003. Jeffrey Epstein was interested in modeling the evolution of viruses. Daszak’s projects at Wuhan later involved evolving viruses.

January 21, 2004. Peter Daszak investigates the origins of Nipah Virus in Malaysia. They travel to an island and find the virus in Flying Fox bats. The Consortium for Conservation Medicine, Wildlife Trust, Harvard, and Johns Hopkins were there.

March 25, 2004. This is the first reference to the term “EcoHealth” that I have found. Peter Daszak becomes a founding co-editor EcoHealth Journal. March 25, 2004 is the date of first publication of the journal. The first article in the journal is: “A Transdisciplinary Imperative for a Sustainable Future, co-authored by Daszak.” I don’t have access to the article.

https://link.springer.com/journal/10393/volumes-and-issues/1-1

Spring 2004. “On a breezy, sunny spring day in 2004, she (Zhengli) joined an international team of researchers to collect samples from bat colonies in caves near Nanning, the capital of Guangxi.” “…Shi and her colleagues had to hike for hours to potential sites and inch through tight rock crevasses on their stomachs.” “These expeditions were part of the effort to catch the culprit in the SARS outbreak, the first major epidemic of the 21st century.” How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus

March-December 2004. “In this study, conducted March to December of 2004, we sampled 408 bats representing nine species, six genera, and three families from four locations in China (Guandong, Guangxi, Hubei, and Tianjin) after trapping them in their native habitat. (Table 1)Bats are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses

https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Li-et-al_Science_Bats-as-reservoir-for-SARS.pdf

A complete genome sequence was determined directly from PCR products from one of the fecal samples (sample Rp3) that contained relatively high levels of genetic material. The genome organization of this virus (Fig. 1), tentatively named SARS-like coronavirus isolate Rp3 (SL-CoV Rp3), was essentially identical to that of SARS-CoV, with the exception of three regions (Fig. 1, shaded boxes). The overall nucleotide sequence identity between SL-CoV Rp3 and SARS-CoV Tor2 was 92% and increased to È94% when the three variable regions were excluded. The variable regions are located at the 5¶ end of the S gene (equivalent to the S1 coding region of coronavirus S protein) and the region immediately upstream of the N gene. These regions have been identified as Bhigh mutation[ regions among different SARS-CoVs (5, 16, 17). The region upstream of the N gene is known to be prone to deletions of various sizes (5, 16, 18).

https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Li-et-al_Science_Bats-as-reservoir-for-SARS.pdf

She Zhengli is pictured below releasing a bat after taking samples from it in 2004. Images are from an archive of a Chinese article since removed.

Shi Zhengli releases a bat in Southern China in 2004 after taking samples for coronavirus studies.
Shi Zhengli and her team had to go to some dangerous places to collect bats.

September 29, 2004. Representatives from the World Health Organization, United Nations, CDC and so forth meet at Rockefeller University to discuss “One World, One Health.” Here, they propose to surveil the World in the name of Health.

Rockefeller Foundation Manhattan Principles. One World, One Health
https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

December 2004. WHO discusses WHO global influenza preparedness plan in Geneva, Switzerland. This new plan redefines the phases of increasing public health risk associated with the emergence of a new influenza virus subtype that may pose a pandemic threat, recommends actions for national authorities, and outlines measures to be taken by WHO during each phase. This should result in greater predictability of the measures to be taken by the various partners involved, including WHO, during the different phases of the pandemic, and should improve international coordination and transparency in recommended national measures.

December 14, 2004. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has announced the start of its first human trial of a vaccine for SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), less than 2 years after the disease was first recognized.  The agency will test the vaccine for safety and the ability to stimulate an immune response in 10 healthy volunteers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., the NIAID said in a news release yesterday.  Officials said the vaccine was developed with “unprecedented speed,” given that SARS was not recognized as a new infectious disease until March 2003 and that it often takes decades to develop a successful vaccine. “We have dramatically cut vaccine development time with powerful new tools from two different fields, molecular biology and information technology,” stated NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, MD.  The vaccine is innovative in that it consists of a small ring of SARS coronavirus DNA that encodes the virus’s “spike” protein, which helps the virus attach to human cells, the NIAID said. In contrast, conventional vaccine technology usually involves the use of a weakened or inactivated form of the whole virus.  Chinese researchers began clinical trials of another experimental SARS vaccine, using inactivated SARS virus, last May, the NIAID noted. NIAID starts first US human trial of SARS vaccine

Sometime 2005. USAID increases their surveillance capabilities. “Since 2005, USAID has strengthened the capacities of more than 50 countries for monitoring the spread of H5N1 avian influenza among wild bird populations.” USAID does not describe their surveillance project as PREDICT at this point. They do not describe their surveillance methods. USAID does not mention conducting surveillance in China before SARS 1 in this document.

USAID PREDICT

October 28, 2005. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak “Bats are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses.” This paper first establishes that SARS-Coronavirus originated in bats. (The civet was first thought to be the source of the virus. They said the civet was a link in the chain).

Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak published a paper which established that bats were the natural reservoirs of the first SARS outbreak, not civets.

November 2005. In a November 2005 speech at the National Institutes of Health, Bush laid out proposals in granular detail — describing with stunning prescience how a pandemic in the United States would unfold. Among those in the audience was Dr. Anthony Fauci, the leader of the current crisis response, who was then and still is now the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. … According to Bossert, who is now an ABC News contributor, Bush did not just insist on preparation for a pandemic. He was obsessed with it. “He was completely taken by the reality that that was going to happen,” Bossert said. George W. Bush in 2005: ‘If we wait for a pandemic to appear, it will be too late to prepare

December 20, 2005. The “Beijing Principles” are created at a series of international Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) meetings. The attendees pledge to control H5N1 with global disease surveillance.

https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

Sometime 2006, approximately. EcoHealth Alliance begins a 5-year study on Nipah virus.

September 2006. “Faecal samples of 24 R. sinicus individuals were collected from distinct locations within China during September 2006.” … “Two positive samples, designated Rs672 and Rs806, were collected from two relatively distant locations, in Guizhou and Hubei provinces, respectively.” … “For Rs672, the sequences for all putative coding regions were obtained. For Rs806, we failed to recover its full-length genome sequence.” The details of this study were published by Shi-Zhengli et al in 2010: Intraspecies diversity of SARS-like coronaviruses in Rhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of SARS coronaviruses in humans

December 12, 2006. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak: Review of bats and SARS. Recently, we and another group independently identified several horseshoe bat species (genus Rhinolophus) as the reservoir host for a large number of viruses that have a close genetic relationship with the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Our current research focused on the identification of the reservoir species for the progenitor virus of the SARS coronaviruses responsible for outbreaks during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004.”

October 2007. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak: Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts. “Knowing the high genetic diversity of bat CoVs, we carried out a systematic phylogenetic study of the viruses and their hosts to examine evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and bats. The aim was to further investigate the origin of SARS-like CoVs and SARS. Our results suggest host-pathogen divergence and host shifts in the recent evolutionary history of these viruses and their hosts. We discuss host behavioral traits and viral traits that might have given rise to these patterns and comment on the implications of our findings for the emergence of SARS-CoV.” Below is Figure 2, Distribution of coronaviruses isolated in the People’s Republic of China.

Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak Distribution of Coronaviruses in southern China
http://Figure 2. Distribution of coronaviruses isolathttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/10/07-0448-f2ed in the People’s Republic of China

November 27, 2007. On 27-29 November 2007, WHO convened the first meeting of the Pandemic Preparedness and Response Guidance Revision Working Group in Geneva, Switzerland. Experts in the field of communicable diseases and influenza, emergency and pandemic planning, and communications from national and international technical institutions, UN/international organizations and WHO staff from headquarters, regional and country offices convened to identify areas requiring updating. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

December 12, 2007. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin: “The key difference between these two groups of closely related viruses lies in their S protein sequences, specifically, the RBM, in which there are two deletions in the bat SL-CoV S sequences.”

February 21, 2008. EcoHealth publishes Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Image is Figure 3: Global distribution of relative risk of an EID event. “Maps are derived for EID events caused by a, zoonotic pathogens from wildlife, b, zoonotic pathogens from non-wildlife, c, drug-resistant pathogens and d, vector-borne pathogens. The relative risk is calculated from regression coefficients and variable values”

EcoHealth Hotspots Spillovers 2008

October 14, 2008. The World Health Organization, World Bank, et al publish a summary of some of the things they discussed at Rockefeller University back in September 2004.

Rockefeller, World Health Organization, World Bank, One World, One Health

2009. H1N1 “Pandemic.” USAID launches the Emerging Pandemic Threats program. The screenshots below haves the 2009 date and reference to H1NI. The entire document is included in a section dated April 2013, which USAID expanded the program.

USAID PREDICT
USAID PREDICT

March 5, 2009. Shi Zhengli co-authors Differential stepwise evolution of SARS coronavirus functional proteins in different host species. It discusses how the spike protein which came to be in the SARS-coronavirus evolved: “Our results suggest that most functional proteins of SARS-CoV have experienced a stepwise adaptive evolutionary pathway. Similar to previous studies, the spike protein underwent strong positive selection in the early and middle phases, and became stabilized in the late phase. In addition, the replicase experienced positive selection only in human patients, whereas assembly proteins experienced positive selection mainly in the middle and late phases.” I’m not sure what that means, but I read it in the context that man can help these proteins “evolve” in a lab. How then did SARS2 acquire its furin cleavage site? As Nicholas Wade wrote in The origin of COVID: Did people or nature open Pandora’s box at Wuhan? on SARS 2 (COVID 19): “How then did SARS2 acquire its furin cleavage site? Either the site evolved naturally, or it was inserted by researchers at the S1/S2 junction in a gain-of-function experiment.”

April 2009. WHO revises its pandemic preparedness and alert plan. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response. Many say the WHO lowered the standard for definition of a “Pandemic.” For example: WHO Changed Definition of Influenza Pandemic: Cohen and Carter state that the WHO changed the definition of an influenza pandemic by excluding reference to the words “with enormous numbers of deaths and illness.” What the article fails to state is that the WHO made two changes; the second change was to drop the requirement for a new sub-type with a simple reassortant virus meaning that many seasonal flu viruses could be classified as pandemic influenza. … If the WHO guidelines in effect at the time that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was identified in the USA in April 2009 then it would never have been declared a pandemic as it was not a new sub-type, was not causing enormous numbers of deaths and illness, and a significant number of people had already been exposed to an immunogenically similar virus. The fact that only one vaccination was required for all but young children is another sign that this was not an immunogenically novel virus.

World Health Organization Pandemic Preparedness 2009

June 11, 2009. In late April, WHO announced the emergence of a novel influenza A virus. This particular H1N1 strain has not circulated previously in humans. … On the basis of available evidence and these expert assessments of the evidence, the scientific criteria for an influenza pandemic have been met. I have therefore decided to raise the level of influenza pandemic alert from Phase 5 to Phase 6. The world is now at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Transcript of statement by Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization

February 6, 2010. Shi Zhengli alone authors “Bat and Virus.” Summarizes the rapid increase in the number of known viruses in bats after the 2002-2003 SARS-coronavirus outbreak.

April 7, 2010. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper Hantavirus outbreak associated with laboratory rats in Yunnan, China about how a virus escaped from research institutions in China in 2003. The virus was hantavirus, causing hemorrhagic fever. The virus is spread only by rats to humans. Humans cannot spread the virus. The rats escaped or were released. This is a high-mortality virus at around 35%. From the paper: “An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred among students in a college (College A) in Kunming, Yunnan province, China in 2003. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of hantavirus antibodies and antigens in laboratory rats at College A and two other institutions. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 15 additional individuals other than the index case in these three locations. Epidemiologic data indicated that the human infections were a result of zoonotic transmission of the virus from laboratory rats.”

September 2010. EcoHealth Alliance formed with the merger of Wildlife Trust and the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. Corporate Eye. EcoHealth

EcoHealth Alliance merges Wildlife Trust and Consortium
https://www.corporate-eye.com/main/wildlife-trust-rebrands-as-ecohealth-alliance/

October 27, 2010. Peter Daszak discusses work and research at the London Zoo where they had insects. “When I first started working wildlife diseases, it was the giant hissing cockroach.” He goes on to explain their virus. He then moves on to snails that were infected with a virus, and were about to become extinct. “A whole species. 14 individual snails. They had died out in the wild. And these guys were so serious because in that collection they had 10 whole species nowhere else on the planet. And they were dying.” Goes on to discuss how frogs were dying from virus. “What’s going on in the environment that’s causing these problems.” Daszak questions if humans are likely to face an extinction disease event like the snails in 1995 London Zoo. I question if researchers at London Zoo were using viruses targeting DNA in a manner that could be used for Eugenics. Daszak shows a “hotspots” map of the world where viruses are likely to “spill over” based on mathematical models.

Peter Daszak Hotspots Spillovers 2010
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPFGX7t4KJE

May 31, 2011. EcoHealth Study released: “Intensive Agriculture Implicated in Transmission of Deadly Nipah Virus to Humans“. “Our work shows that repeated spillover of Nipah virus from bats into a very structured, intensive piggery led to the emergence of this disease,” said Dr. Peter Daszak, senior author of the paper and president of EcoHealth Alliance. “This is yet another case of an emerging disease caused by human activity, and puts the focus on us to change the way we mix agriculture and the environment for a healthier planet.” The study involved collaborators in five countries, including ecologists, veterinarians, physicians, and mathematicians.

September 9, 2011. Contagion was released September 9, 2011. This movie raised “threat level” concerns in the public about viruses. The movie was a dramatization of EcoHealth Alliance’s research on Nipah Virus. By raising the threat levels of Pandemics in association with 9/11 they were able to increase demand for research funding.

Contagion Virus Movie by EcoHealth Alliance, Ian Lipkin, Peter Daszak

September 10, 2011. EcoHealth Alliance comments on move Contagion, stating that it was based on Nipah Virus.

Contagion Virus Movie by EcoHealth Alliance, Ian Lipkin, Peter Daszak,

September 11, 2011. Ten Year Anniversary of 9/11.

April 2012. In Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, workers fell ill in a copper mine shaft full of bats. Shi Zhengli and her team investigate six bat species in this mine shaft 2012-2013. According to Scientific American, “the fungus turned out to be the pathogen that had sickened the miners.” Scientific American did not provide a quote or reference paper from Zhengli on the fungus. Zhengli’s team did however find new viruses in the mine and published their findings on February 18, 2016. The Master’s Thesis of Li Xu of Kumming Medical University first discussed the illnesses of six workers: The Analysis of Six Patients with Unknown Viruses.

Approximately April 24, 2012. According to an he Chinese military began a secret program to categorize viruses in 2012. “Documents obtained by The Mail on Sunday reveal that a nationwide scheme, directed by a leading state body, was launched nine years ago to discover new viruses and detect the ‘dark matter’ of biology involved in spreading diseases.” “The scheme’s five team leaders include Shi Zhengli, the WIV virologist nicknamed ‘Bat Woman’ for her trips to find samples in caves, and Cao Wuchun, a senior army officer and government adviser on bioterrorism.” How scientists at Wuhan lab helped Chinese army in secret project to find animal viruses | Daily Mail Online,

June 13, 2012. A man in Saudi Arabia is diagnosed with what would be described late as MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). In November 8, 2012, researchers from the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia published Isolation of a Novel Coronavirus from a Man with Pneumonia in Saudi Arabia : “A 60-year-old Saudi man was admitted to a private hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on June 13, 2012, with a 7-day history of fever, cough, expectoration, and shortness of breath. He had no history of cardiopulmonary or renal disease, was receiving no long-term medications, and did not smoke.” “The virus represents a novel betacoronavirus species. The closest known relatives are bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Here, the clinical data, virus isolation, and molecular identification are presented. The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003…”

August 2012. From the paper later published in 2016, we can see that testing of the viruses found in bats in the Yunnan Province mine shaft began by Shi Zhengli’s team as early as August 2012. They described one virus as “SARS-related,” found in Rhinolophus affinus, but they did not name the virus. (I don’t understand why they described some viruses which had names ((HKU8, HKU2, HKU10)) as “unclassified.”)

A summary of viruses collected from bats in a Yunnan Province copper mine shaft.  One was "SARS-related" but unnamed.

October 2012 and April 2013. Studies on bats in Saudia Arabia and MERS are done. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia. “In October 2012 and April 2013, three agencies collected samples from bats in regions where MERS cases had been identified. The agencies are the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia, the Center for Infection and Immunity of Columbia University, and EcoHealth Alliance.” They found 1 bat with a MERS-coronavirus positive signal. “the only MERS-positive signal was obtained in PCR analysis of the T. perforatus bat captured in Bisha near the home and workplace of the MERS index case-patient used to generate the human β-CoV 2c EMC/2012 sequence.” The authors of the study were not at all convinced that bats around Saudi Arabia were the source of MERS. “We sampled only a small sample of bats in Saudi Arabia. Nonetheless, given the rarity of MERS CoV sequences detected by our survey and the broad distribution of MERS cases throughout the Middle East, we speculate that there are probably other hosts. Future work should investigate additional bat and other wildlife species and domestic animals for CoV infection and potential linkage to human disease.” Some posit that the virus may have been first transmitted by bat to camel, then camel to human.

Bat sampling locations in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and 2013 after Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

April 2013. USAID announces a “second line” of defense against Pandemics. The program has four main parts- PREDICT, PREVENT, IDENTIFY, and RESPOND. The PREDICT project subcontracts EcoHealth Alliance and their disease spillover “hotspots” mathematical model. The IDENTIFY project involves the United Nations and the World Health Organization somehow. Thus the World Health Organization has a conflict of interest in any investigations of EcoHealth Alliance or the origins of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

May 27, 2013. Shi Zhengli’s reference letter from the Director of Wuhan’s Institute of Virology to become part of Peter Daszak’s EcoHealth Alliance team soon to receive funding for study “Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence.” Note that Zhengli has access to coronavirus research on the viruses in the Mojiang mine at this point when she is applying to EcoHealth, but she will not publish the research until February 2016. The delay suggests a collaboration over unpublished data between Zhengli and Daszak and is highly suspicious under the circumstances.

Shi Zhengli Wuhan EcoHealth Alliance

October 30, 2013. Shi Zhengli co-authors Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Still looking for the exact bat-coronavirus to match the 2002-2003 SARS-coronavirus: “Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein.” They modified some viruses: “Replacing the RBD of one SL-CoV S protein with SARS-CoV S conferred the ability to use human ACE2 and replicate efficiently in mice9,13. However, to date, no SL-CoVs have been isolated from bats, and no wild-type SL-CoV of bat origin has been shown to use ACE2.”

Mid-March 2014. “The number of (MERS) cases sharply increased since mid‐March 2014,” WHO says in its latest advisory. But it also notes that most people are infected by other people, not directly by camels.NBC.

March 21, 2014. It is precisely in the P4 Jean Mérieux-Inserm Laboratory (France) that, on March 21, 2014, the Ebola virus responsible for the epidemic was isolated, three days before President Xi Jinping’s visit to Lyon. This epidemiological development and the simultaneity with the Chinese presidential visit made it possible for us to accelerate the completion of the Wuhan BSL4 laboratory in China as part of an unprecedented Sino-French cooperation. 2014 annual report Merieux Foundation.

March 26, 2014. China’s President Xi Jinping leaves the Institut Franco-Chinois in Lyon, France on March 26, 2014. The Chinese President is on a three-day state visit to France.

https://www.alamy.com/chinas-president-xi-jinping-leaves-the-institut-franco-chinois-in-lyon-france-on-march-26-2014-the-chinese-president-is-on-a-three-day-state-visit-to-france-photo-by-vincent-dargentabacapresscom-image393589868.html

April 2014. Camels are almost certainly the source of the MERS virus that is on the upswing again across the Middle East, researchers reported on Tuesday. NBC

May 27, 2014. Peter Daszak, President of Ecohealth Alliance, awarded NIAID research grant to study coronavirus and bats. Project Title: Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence. The original documents are in this Intercept article: NEW DETAILS EMERGE ABOUT CORONAVIRUS RESEARCH AT CHINESE LAB. Here are some French connections to researchers in the NIAID grant.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology is a World Health Organization collaborating center. It also has partnerships, research collaborations and contracts with universities and research institutes in more than 30 counties and regions including a long-time (>15 years) partnership with EcoHealth Alliance. There are 14 professors, 36 associated professors, and 47 assistant professors conducting research on virology and five of these have been awarded honors in the “Hundred Talents Project”. In 2013, the first BSL-4 lab in China was opened at this Institute in a bespoke facility which was designed with the assistance of the US CDC and L’lnstitut Pasteur of France.

Shi Zhengli received her Ph. D. from University Montpellier II, Montpellier, France (2000) and was awarded Palm Knight Medal for Education, Government of the Republic of France (2016.

Shuyi Zhang graduated from University of Paris XIII, France (1990) and received a Ph.D. from University Pierre & Marie Curie, France (1994).

Xing Yi Ge did Doctoral Training, Unit of Molecular Genetics of RNA Viruses, Department of Virology, Institute Pasteur, Paris, France (2010).

Alice Latinne was a Marie Curie COFUND fellow conducting postdoctoral research at the lnstitut des Sciences de !’Evolution in Montpellier (ISEM, France).

September 30, 2014. The PREDICT program changes from to PREDICT to PREDICT 2 on this date according to notes in Daszak’s 2014 NIAID grant. The goal of PREDICT was to “was to conduct zoonotic virus surveillance in wildlife in 20 countries, and modeling hotspots and drivers for disease emergence.” The goal of PREDICT 2 was “to create and implement a global virus surveillance system in animals and humans and analyze spillover risk.”

October 17, 2014. NIAID announces a funding pause for certain gain-of-function research projects due to a series of laboratory biosafety incidents. NIH Guide Notice NOT-OD-15-01

February 2, 2015. China has inaugurated its first National Biosafety Laboratory (Wuhan Institute of Virology) to study highly contagious diseases that will include research on live strains of the Ebola virus, the state-controlled China Daily newspaper reported Monday. The center is located in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, and is the first one in the country with the highest level-4 biosafety standards built with French help. Though 10 Chinese research centers are already involved in Ebola research, especially on diagnosis techniques and vaccines, the current center will allow the study of live Ebola virus. “The laboratory fills the domestic void, provides conditions for research on the Ebola virus and brighs our fight against the virus from Africa to domestic laboratories,” National Health and Family Planning Commission Minister Li Bin was quoted as saying by China Daily. The director of the new institute, Yuan Zhiming, said that without a biosafety level-4 laboratory, there was no option of experimenting with live viruses or to test viruses on animals. So far, Ebola research in China has involved using individual genes or proteins, Yuan added. Approval for the laboratory was given by the Chinese government in 2003, after an outbreak of avian flu, however its construction began only in 2011. China opens first high-tech biosafety lab to study Ebola.

October 2015. In October 2015 Shi Zhengli’s team collected blood from approximately 200 people in 4 villages around Shitou and Yanzi Caves near Kunming, China. They found that 3% (a total of 6 people) of people had developed antibodies against coronaviruses from bats without coming into contact with the bats. Scientific American, in my opinion, also overstated the link between RaTG13 and SARS2: “The genomic sequence of the virus, eventually named SARS-CoV-2, was 96 percent identical to that of a coronavirus the researchers had identified in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Their results appeared in a paper published online on February 3 in Nature. ‘It’s crystal clear that bats, once again, are the natural reservoir,” says Daszak, who was not involved in the study.'” 96% is not a close match for SARS. Scientific American. How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus

November 9, 2015. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina describing how they created a chimeric virus, SHC014-MA15: A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations1. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system2, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. “...we built a chimeric virus encoding a novel, zoonotic CoV spike protein—from the RsSHC014-CoV sequence that was isolated from Chinese horseshoe bats1—in the context of the SARS-CoV mouse-adapted backbone. The hybrid virus allowed us to evaluate the ability of the novel spike protein to cause disease independently of other necessary adaptive mutations in its natural backbone.”

Baric et al describe how their chimeric virus attaches to human receptors, which they apparently tested on “humanized mice” which were genetically altered to have a human ACE2 receptor: The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis.

December 22, 2015. Shi Zhengli, Lin-fa Wang et al publish “Bat origin of human coronaviruses.” Special attention has been paid to bat coronaviruses as the two emerging coronaviruses which have caused unexpected human disease outbreaks in the 21st century, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are suggested to be originated from bats. … Understanding the bat origin of human coronaviruses is helpful for the prediction and prevention of another pandemic emergence in the future. Note the language “predict and prevent.”

December 30, 2015. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak co-author “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.” They report on a new coronavirus collected from a bat in July 2013 in the mine shaft in Yunnan province. They named the virus SL-CoV WIV16. They said it was a 96% match for human and civet coronaviruses, the highest yet. It’s a matter of small differences though as their table shows.

Genomic comparison of SARS-CoV GZ02 with civet SARS-CoV and other bat SL-CoVs

February 18, 2016. Shi Zhengli co-authors “Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.” This study was based on the previously mentioned April 2012 illness in the mine shaft in Yunnan Province, China. The study found one new coronavirus and 2 or 3 new betacoronaviruses. “… the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species.” MERS, which originated in Saudi Arabia months after the mine shaft illness, was a betacoronavirus. “Only two sequences detected in this study were homologous to betacoronaviruses. One of them (RaBtCoV/4991)
was detected in a R. affinis sample and was related to SL-CoV. The conserved 440-bp RdRp fragment of RaBtCoV/4991 had 89% nt identity and 95% aa identity with SL-CoV Rs672 (Yuan et al., 2010). In the phylogenetic
.” Figure below shows the location of the mine shaft in Yunnan Province and some nearby towns.

Yunnan Province mine shaft and nearby towns

August 8, 2016. The Global Virome Project begins. It is a private effort to categorize all the world’s viruses. It is aimed to launch in 2018. Peter Daszak is the Treasurer and Secretary of the Global Virome Project Leadership Board. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak have co-authored many papers together. Zhengli began publishing studies on viruses outside of China after 2018, although I haven’t seen a reference to Zhengli being directly involved in the Global Virome Project.

Global Virome Project targeting strategy.  Estimate 1.67 million unknown viruses.

December 25, 2016. Shi Zhengli attends and addresses a conference in Pakistan “Strategies to Control Viral Hemorrhagic Fever.” “Prof. Zhengli Shi gave a presentation on the epidemic, animal tracing and diagnostics of the respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Middle East.” Wuhan Institute of Virology

Shi Zhengli ddresses a conference in Pakistan "Strategies to Control Viral Hemorrhagic Fever." representing Wuhan Institute of Virology.

February 23, 2017. Photo shows Shi Zhengli at work at her P4 laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Shi Zhengli at work in 2017 in P4 facility Wuhan Institute of Virology
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/china/chinas-missing-bat-woman-with-secrets-of-covid-19-origin-denies-defecting-to-west/articleshow/75508804.cms

March 23, 2017. Bernard Cazeneuve cuts ribbon for the P4 laboratory in Wuhan

On the morning of February 23, 2017, Bernard Cazeneuve, Prime Minister of France, paid a visit to Wuhan P4 Biological Security Laboratory during his last leg to China. As a symbol of Sino-French technological cooperation in the field of public health, the P4 laboratory in Wuhan has attracted a lot of attention from the French government. Cazeneuve and his delegation attended the ribbon-cutting ceremony for the laboratory and then inspected the laboratory.

http://en.hubei.gov.cn/news/newslist/201702/t20170224_955902.shtml

May 2017. Sky News Australia found May 2017 footage showing caged bats and one “hanging off the hat of” a researcher “wearing a mask and glasses but no other protective head covering.” The lab even “filed patents for bat cages.” Daszak, whose EcoHealth Alliance funneled government grants to the Wuhan lab, deleted tweets claiming it held no live bats but hasn’t “admitted he was wrong.” NY Post

June 12, 2017. Global patterns in coronavirus diversity

November 13, 2017. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak co-author “Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus.” This report is also on the bats in the mine shaft. “We have carried out a five-year longitudinal surveillance (April 2011 to October 2015) on SARSr-CoVs in bats from a single habitat in proximity to Kunming city, Yunnan province, China, which was mainly inhabited by horseshoe bats.” They found many new viruses. The researchers were still looking for an exact match for SARS: “The primary difference between SARS-CoV and most bat SARSr-CoVs is located in S gene.” The researchers believe that it may be possible that SARS could have originated from these bats, but they don’t make a “smoking gun” claim: “Recombination analysis shows evidence of frequent recombination events within the S gene and around the ORF8 between these SARSr-CoVs. We hypothesize that the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV may have originated after sequential recombination events between the precursors of these SARSr-CoVs.” The researchers were cautious against making a claim that the bats in the Yunnan mine shaft were the origin of SARS when they chose the phrase “new insights into the origin.” David Cyranoski, in Nature, on December 1 2017 wasn’t so cautious: “researchers chasing the origin of the deadly SARS virus have finally found their smoking gun.” He chose the title: “Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus

December 29, 2017. Taiwan News: “On Dec. 29, 2017, Chinese state-run TV released a video designed to showcase Shi Zhengli, (石正麗), also known as “Bat Woman,” and her team of scientists at the WIV in their quest to find the origin of SARS. Despite the fact that the scientists work in a biosafety level 4 lab, they show a shocking disregard for safety when handling potentially infectious bats both in the wild and in the lab.” Picture shows swelling on a team member’s arm after a bat bite. This is noteworthy: “However, in an article posted in the China Science Exploration Center, which was later scrubbed by China’s censors, Shi boasted that ‘this job is not as dangerous as everyone thinks.’ Although bats carry many viruses, ‘the odds of directly infecting humans is very small, she wrote.'”

A team member of Shi Zhengli was bitten by a bat, likely in 2004, and showed signs of infection.  China published the video the day before Zhengli received SARS 2 samples from China, according to Taiwan News.

January 4, 2018. DARPA announces start of PREEMPT. Avian influenza (H7N9). MERS coronavirus. Ebola. Hepatitis E. Yellow Fever. Lassa. Zika. When you consider the viral infectious diseases that emerged and reemerged around the world in 2017 alone, what many of them have in common is that they originated in animals and spilled over into humans after a series of mutations that enable the pathogens to jump species. … A new DARPA program called Preventing Emerging Pathogenic Threats, or PREEMPT, seeks to support military readiness by going after new viral infectious diseases at the source, animal reservoirs—the species in which a pathogen lives, multiplies, and potentially evolves into a strain that can threaten humans. PREEMPT aims to advance understanding of viruses and their interaction with animals, insects, and humans, and deliver new, proactive interventions to reduce the risk from emerging and reemerging pathogens. … PREEMPT will have two technical thrusts: development of multiscale models and test beds to quantify the imminent emergence and reemergence of human pathogens; and development of new, scalable approaches to preventing pathogen spillover and transmission from animals and vectors into humans. Understanding how viruses evolve within a species will be a core area of research. Going to the Source to Prevent Viral Disease Outbreaks

January 19, 2018. DARPA solicits proposals for PREEMPT. DARPA is soliciting innovative proposals for research to develop new tools and models to quantify the likelihood of a virus to jump from an animal host into humans, and to develop and validate new scalable technologies to target potential human-capable viral pathogens in wild reservoirs and/or mosquito vectors to prevent transmission to humans.Proposers should explain how they will develop probabilistic models and machine learning techniques that integrate multi-scale and cross-species data (e.g., molecular signatures, demographic, ecological, socio-economic, epidemiological, weather, climate, and other metadata) to quantify a pathogen’s likelihood to cross species barriers and infect humans. … The key outputs for TA1 must include the following: 1)  Integrated models that quantify likelihood of virus jump and can be easily adapted to receive dynamic surveillance and virus data input. Funding Opportunity Number: HR001118S0017

February 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China. The study again references the six individuals found with coronavirus antibodies near the Yunnan province caves: “considering that these individuals have a high chance of direct exposure to bat secretion in their villages, this study further supports the notion that some bat SARSr-CoVs are able to directly infect humans without intermediate hosts.”

March 2018. Taiwan News: “Photos have resurfaced from 2018 showing a warped seal on a freezer door as suspicions grow that the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic could have started at a poorly managed virology lab in Wuhan. … Photos posted by the China Daily in early March, before later being scrubbed, show a seal around a freezer door looking dangerously warped. The original tweet proudly proclaimed the photos as being of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, where it said 1,500 viruses are kept. On March 10, Twitter user John Pollizzi reposted one of the photos showing a badly bent seal and quipped: “I have seen better seals on my refrigerator in my kitchen.” The image went viral, as many other netizens were equally horrified by the apparently lax safety measures, and was published on British media on Sunday (April 19).” My thoughts: The freezer is believed to be -80 Celsius. If you open the door, it’s not sealed anyway. Here is the British article in Express on April 20, 2020: “Terrifying photos hastily deleted by China set coronavirus alarm bells ringing.”

The image where a seal on a freezer in Wuhan Institute of Virology that contained coronaviruses is loose from the door.  Image was probably published by China the December 29, 2019, the day before she received SARS 2 samples from China.

April 4, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-author Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin: “Here we report on a series of fatal swine disease outbreaks in Guangdong province, China, approximately 100 km from the location of the purported index case of SARS. Most strikingly, we found that the causative agent of this swine acute diarrhoea syndrome (SADS) is a novel HKU2-related coronavirus that is 98.48% identical in genome sequence to a bat coronavirus, which we detected in 2016 in bats in a cave in the vicinity of the index pig farm. This new virus (SADS-CoV) originated from the same genus of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as SARS-CoV. From 28 October 2016 onwards, a fatal swine disease outbreak was observed in a pig farm in Qingyuan, Guangdong province, China, very close to the location of the first known index case of SARS in 2002…”

July 1, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors “Discovery of Novel Bat Coronaviruses in South China That Use the Same Receptor as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: ” Our study provides further evidence that bats represent the evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV. … However, its evolutionary path from bats to humans remains unclear.”

December 10, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. It discusses intermediary hosts (camel, cow, civet, pig) between humans, and the original source of the coronaviruses (bats and rats). It discusses how mutations and recombinations of coronaviruses and how these coronaviruses bind with receptors in animals that were not the original host. The funding of this study, and the research institutions involved are now in the public spotlight. It appears to be essentially a joint study between Chinese military intelligence and the named US government agencies. “This work was jointly funded by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB29010000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31621061) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases (R01AI110964) to Z.-L.S; NIH grants (R01AI089728 and R01AI110700) to F.L.; the CAS Pioneer Hundred Talents Program to J.C.; and the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) “One-Three-Five” Strategic Program (WIV-135-TP1) to J.C. and Z.-L.S.”

A figure shows the original and intermediary hosts of coronaviruses that transfer to humans.  No labs are in the figure.  Maybe there should be.

January 7, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors: Characterization of a filovirus (Měnglà virus) from Rousettus bats in China. This article is not available for public view without paying for it, apparently. The abstract essentially says that the newly-identified bat virus is similar to Ebola. “Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV)”…. “are evolutionally and functionally closely related.”

January 28, 2019. Shi Zhengli is elected a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Wuhan Institute of Virology: “On Jan 28, the American Academy of Microbiology elected 109 new Fellows in 2019. The “’Class of 2019′ represents fellows from China, the U.S., France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Israel, Korea, and etc. Prof. SHI Zhengli from Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Prof. SHI is the Director of the Center of Emerging Infectious Diseases at WIV, Director of the Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety of CAS, and the Editor-in-Chief of Virologica Sinica. She received her Ph.D from Montpellier University II, France, in 2000. Her researches focus on molecular epidemiology and interspecies infection mechanism of emerging viruses of zoonotic origin especially those from bats. She has made distinguished and pioneering achievement in discovery and characterization of important bat-borne viruses. She identified the bat origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and has made crucial contributions to prevention and control of zoonotic emerging infectious disease in China. She had got over 120 publications including research articles on high-impact journals Science, Nature, Cell Host & Microbe, PLoS Pathogens, etc. She won the first prize of Natural Science Award of Hubei Province in 2017 and the second prize of National Natural Science Award in 2018. Fellows of the American Academy of Microbiology, an honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), are elected annually through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology. Formed in 1955, the ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of more than 50,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to promote and advance the microbial sciences. Now there are over 2,400 Fellows representing all subspecialties of the microbial sciences and involved in basic and applied research, teaching, public health, industry, and government service.” Below is a photo that WIV included in their statement.

Shi Zhengli of the Wuhan Institute of Virology is January 28, 2019.  Shi Zhengli is elected a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology

March 11, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Bat Coronaviruses in China. “In this review, we collected information from past epidemiology studies on bat coronaviruses in China, including the virus species identified, their host species, and their geographical distributions. We also discuss the future prospects of bat coronaviruses cross-species transmission and spread in China.” Below is figure “Geographical distribution of bat coronaviruses (CoVs) and their corresponding bat hosts in China.”

Geographical distribution of bat coronaviruses (CoVs) and their corresponding bat hosts in China

May 20, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Bat adeno-associated viruses as gene therapy vectors with the potential to evade human neutralizing antibodies. “The prevalence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been investigated in bat populations, but little is known about the biological properties of this virus. In this study, four full-length bat AAV capsid genes were isolated in China…”

Summer 2019. Daily Mail: “Medical researchers with the Chinese army engineered mice with humanized lungs in 2019 to test viruses on them, it has been reported.  The mice, developed using CRISPR gene-editing technology, were mentioned in an April 2020 study which researched their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the COVID-19 illness, Vanity Fair revealed in its bombshell investigation. Of the study’s 23 co-authors, 11 of them worked for the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, the medical research institute for the Chinese army. Investigators with the U.S. National Security Council, researching the origins of the pandemic, determined that the mice referenced in the study were created in the summer of 2019 – just months before the emergence of the pandemic.”

August 16, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Detection and characterization of a novel bat-borne coronavirus in Singapore using multiple molecular approaches. It is a study of bats and coronaviruses in Singapore. They note: “Although SADS-CoV (in pigs) was shown to be incapable of infecting humans in its current form, it remains to be seen whether further adaptation or a related virus can spill over into human populations in the future.” Below is figure “Geographical distribution of bat roosts in Singapore.”

Geographical distribution of bat roosts in Singapore

September 2019. Shi Zhentli co-authors Human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in Southern China. “Scientific question: What are the behavioral risks in human-animal interactions that could lead to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in human population. Direct contact with bats was not identified as a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical illness in these populations.”

September 12, 2019. “On the September 12, 2019, the virus database at the Wuhan Institute of Virology was taken offline, and with it 22,000 coronavirus samples were gone.” The lab leak, the missing scientists, the cover-up: Piecing together ‘What Really Happened in Wuhan

“Autumn” 2019. The U.S. government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology

Sometime October 2019. “Listen the people that had the most access to the most intelligence, are telling you that the most likely origin of COVID-19, of the Wuhan virus was what happened… was a lab leak at the Wuhan Institute of Virology,” John Ratcliffe, former United States Director of National Intelligence, said. “This is really most likely what happened and it’s more than just a possibility, it’s certainly a probability and it’s probably a certainty.” Intelligence was received that three people working at the Wuhan Institute of Virology had fallen sick in October 2019, two months before the first official case was reported. “What (former Secretary of State) Mike Pompeo and I put out is people became sick at the lab in October and with symptoms that became entirely consistent with what most people have experienced around the world from COVID-19,” Mr Ratcliffe saidThe lab leak, the missing scientists, the cover-up: Piecing together ‘What Really Happened in Wuhan

October 15, 2019. U.S. delegation arrives in Wuhan for Military World Games. A group of 17 athletes from the U.S. Armed Forces has arrived at the airport in the central Chinese city of Wuhan for the up-coming 2019 Military World Games here on Monday midnight. About 300 athletes from the United States are expected to arrive in the next 2 days. The picture below is from opening ceremony on October 18, 2019.

http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-10/18/c_138482909_87.htm

October 31, 2019. Shi Zhentli co-authors “Filovirus-reactive antibodies in humans and bats in Northeast India imply zoonotic spillover.” “In the Northeast Indian state of Nagaland, local ethnic groups have conducted bat harvests for at least seven generations as a source of food and traditional medicine. These bat hunters are exposed to saliva, blood, and excreta from the bat species Rousettus leschenaultii and Eonycteris spelaea. We conducted a serological survey of both hunted bat species and human hunters to study if humans have been exposed to filoviruses potentially originating from bats.” Figure below shows the “Geographical map of the border region between India and Myanmar.”

Geographical map of the border region between India and Myanmar where serological survey of filoviruses

November 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Novel RNA Viruses in Wild and Synanthropic Rodents and Shrews in Kenya. “…little is known about the diversity of viruses circulating among rodents and shrews in Kenya, meaning the risk of infectious disease outbreak from these small mammals could be oblivious. This study reports the first surveillance toward understanding the diversity of RNA viruses carried by rodents and shrews in areas of high-potential contact with humans in Kenya through molecular detection.” Figure below is “Map of Kenya showing rodent and shrew sampling sites between August and September, 2016.

Map of Kenya showing rodent and shrew sampling sites between August and September, 2016  from paper Shi Zhengli paper novel RNA Viruses

November 2019. “Three researchers from China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology became sick enough in November 2019 that they sought hospital care, according to a previously undisclosed U.S. intelligence report ...” Researchers “became sick in autumn 2019 ‘with symptoms consistent with both Covid-19 and common seasonal illness.‘” Intelligence on Sick Staff at Wuhan Lab Fuels Debate on Covid-19 Origin – WSJ: Note that the WSJ report references “three researchers” in “November,” of an underlying report that says “several researchers” in “autumn.”

December 30, 2019. At the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Shi Zhengli receives samples of what the WHO would later name COVID-19. Zhengli later denied that they had ever seen the virus before. Zhengli:

We first received the clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 on December 30 2019, which were called back then samples of ‘pneumonia with unknown etiology.’ Subsequently, we rapidly conducted research in parallel with other domestic institutions, and quickly identified the pathogen. The complete genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was submitted and published via WHO on January 12. Before that, we had never been in contact with or studied this virus, nor did we know of its existence.” Scientific American: “Shi instructed her group to repeat the tests and, at the same time, sent the samples to another facility to sequence the full viral genomes. Meanwhile she frantically went through her own lab’s records from the past few years to check for any mishandling of experimental materials, especially during disposal. Shi breathed a sigh of relief when the results came back: none of the sequences matched those of the viruses her team had sampled from bat caves. ‘That really took a load off my mind,’ she says. ‘I had not slept a wink for days.'”

February 3, 2020. Shi Zhengli co-authors A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. This is the first report of virus RaTG13. An article in Lancet will later claim ” RaTG13, the closest known virus, which was collected in 2013 and published in 2020.” The Lancet article references the

“The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020.” They said the “COVID-19” virus was 96.2% similar to a virus they had discovered: “We then found that a short region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from a bat coronavirus (BatCoV RaTG13)—which was previously detected in Rhinolophus affinis from Yunnan province—showed high sequence identity to 2019-nCoV. We carried out full-length sequencing on this RNA sample (GISAID accession number EPI_ISL_402131). Simplot analysis showed that 2019-nCoV was highly similar throughout the genome to RaTG13 (Fig. 1c), with an overall genome sequence identity of 96.2%.” This does not sound like a very good match for SARS 2, however. They described RaTG13 as the “closest relative” they knew of: “Using the aligned genome sequences of 2019-nCoV, RaTG13, SARS-CoV and previously reported bat SARSr-CoVs, no evidence for recombination events was detected in the genome of 2019-nCoV. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome and the gene sequences of RdRp and spike (S) showed that—for all sequences—RaTG13 is the closest relative of 2019-nCoV and they form a distinct lineage from other SARSr-CoVs…” Question: what percentage of similarity would be required to form a very good match?

February 19, 2020. Peter Daszak et al publish a statement in Lancet: The rapid, open, and transparent sharing of data on this outbreak is now being threatened by rumours and misinformation around its origins. We stand together to strongly condemn conspiracy theories suggesting that COVID-19 does not have a natural origin. Scientists from multiple countries have published and analysed genomes of the causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),1 and they overwhelmingly conclude that this coronavirus originated in wildlife,2345678910 as have so many other emerging pathogens.1112 This is further supported by a letter from the presidents of the US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine13 and by the scientific communities they represent. Conspiracy theories do nothing but create fear, rumours, and prejudice that jeopardise our global collaboration in the fight against this virus. We support the call from the Director-General of WHO to promote scientific evidence and unity over misinformation and conjecture.14 We want you, the science and health professionals of China, to know that we stand with you in your fight against this virus. Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19.

February 24, 2020. “A Chinese military scientist with ties to the United States reportedly filed a patent for a COVID-19 vaccine well before the disease was declared a global pandemic.  Yusen Zhou, who worked for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), lodged the paperwork on behalf of the Chinese political party on February 24 2020, according to The Australian newspaper.  That date was just five weeks after China first confirmed human transmission of the coronavirus.  Zhou is also said to have ‘worked closely’ with scientists at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), including Shi Zhengli – the deputy director of the lab who is famous for her research on coronavirus in bats. … Zhou mysteriously died less than three months after he filed the patent. The New York Post claims his death was only reported in one Chinese media report, despite the fact he was one of the country’s most prominent scientists.”  Chinese military scientist ‘filed a patent for a COVID-19 vaccine BEFORE the virus was declared a global pandemic and worked closely with ‘bat woman’ at Wuhan institute

April 18, 2020. “We (France) would like to make it clear that there is to this day no factual evidence corroborating recent reports in the US press linking the origins of Covid-19 and the work of the P4 laboratory of Wuhan, China,” an official at President Emmanuel Macron’s office said.” France says no evidence Covid-19 linked to Wuhan research lab set up with French help

May 2, 2020. Shi Zhengli denies that she has defected or will defect to the “West” with sensitive documents. Fox New. Times of India. Global Times.

June 1, 2020. Jane Qui, in Scientific American, published that SARS 2 was 96% identical to a coronavirus found in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Qui did not give a name for the virus found to be 96% identical to SARS 2. By January 7 the Wuhan team had determined that the new virus had indeed caused the disease those patients suffered—a conclusion based on results from analyses using polymerase chain reaction, full genome sequencing, antibody tests of blood samples and the virus’s ability to infect human lung cells in a petri dish. The genomic sequence of the virus, eventually named SARS-CoV-2, was 96 percent identical to that of a coronavirus the researchers had identified in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Their results appeared in a paper published online on February 3 in Nature. “It’s crystal clear that bats, once again, are the natural reservoir,” says Daszak, who was not involved in the study. The use of the phrases “crystal clear” and “natural reservoir” in a paragraph that states that RaTG13 is “96% identical” to SARS 2 can lead to a false impression that the virus RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS 2 in my opinion. How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus by Jane Qiu

July 15, 2020. Shi Zhengli answers written questions of Science Magazine about the origins of SARS 2, lab leaks, and other questions. Zhengli said that RaTG13 evolving to SARS 2 is nature is “only theoretically possible” and “the probability is extremely tiny.” Zhengli explains how BtCoV/4991 came to be renamed as RaTG13. WUHAN CORONAVIRUS HUNTER SHI ZHENGLI SPEAKS OUT. Full .pdf of Zhengli’s statements.

https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf
https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf
Shi Zhengli disputes theories that RaTG13 could have evolved naturally into SARS 2
https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf

August 21, 2020. “Nature” Journal publishes a defense of Peter Daszak and EcoHealth Alliance. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02473-4

September 2020. A PROGRESS REPORT detailing controversial U.S.-funded research into bat coronaviruses in China was filed more than two years after it was due and long after the corresponding grant had concluded. The U.S.-based nonprofit the EcoHealth Alliance submitted the report to its funder, the National Institutes of Health, in September 2020, while the group was engulfed in controversy surrounding its work with partners in China. NIH BAT CORONAVIRUS GRANT REPORT WAS SUBMITTED MORE THAN TWO YEARS LATE

January 15, 2021. Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The U.S. government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. … WHO investigators must have access to the records of the WIV’s work on bat and other coronaviruses before the COVID-19 outbreak. As part of a thorough inquiry, they must have a full accounting of why the WIV altered and then removed online records of its work with RaTG13 and other viruses. It’s noteworthy that the State Department says that RaTG13 was one of the viruses removed from an online data base at Wuhan Institute of Virology (presumably in September 12, 2021). This is not disclosed in any open-source reporting that I have seen. The Sate Department did not explain the source of their information.

February 10, 2021. WHO issues WHO-convened global study of origins of SARS-CoV-2: China Part

February 18, 2021. Roland Wiesendange of University of Hamburg, Germany, publishes Study on the Origin of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Wiesendanger said he was 99.9 sure that SARS 2 began with a lab leak from the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Wiesendanger listed six circumstantial facts to support his theory, which was translated to English here: Fact-Checking Prof. Roland Wiesendanger Covid Claims About Wuhan Laboratory:

Roland Wiesendanger
Circumstantial evidence of German physicist Roland Wiesendange that a lab leak of Wuhan Institute of Virology caused the SARS 2 Pandemic.

May 23, 2021. Wall Street Journal publishes Intelligence on Sick Staff at Wuhan Lab Fuels Debate on Covid-19 Origin and misstate what is in US State Department Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

April 24, 2021. Daily Mail reports that they have seen documents on secret Chinese army efforts to find animal viruses. Scientists studying bat diseases at China‘s maximum-security laboratory in Wuhan were engaged in a massive project to investigate animal viruses alongside leading military officials – despite their denials of any such links. Documents obtained by The Mail on Sunday reveal that a nationwide scheme, directed by a leading state body, was launched nine years ago to discover new viruses and detect the ‘dark matter’ of biology involved in spreading diseases. One leading Chinese scientist, who published the first genetic sequence of the Covid-19 virus in January last year, found 143 new diseases in the first three years of the project alone. The fact that such a virus-detection project is led by both civilian and military scientists appears to confirm incendiary claims from the United States alleging collaboration between the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) and the country’s 2.1 million-strong armed forces. The scheme’s five team leaders include Shi Zhengli, the WIV virologist nicknamed ‘Bat Woman’ for her trips to find samples in caves, and Cao Wuchun, a senior army officer and government adviser on bioterrorism. Worrying new clues about the origins of Covid: How scientists at Wuhan lab helped Chinese army in secret project to find animal viruses, writes IAN BIRRELL. The “nine years ago” dates the Daily Mails reported Chinese Military project to approximately April, 2012, when workers fell ill in a Mojiang mine shaft. It seems the Daily Mail intended to imply that the workers who fell ill in the mine shaft were part of a Chinese military project.

May 14, 2021. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina, a research partner of Shi Zhengli, joins calls for an investigation into the origins of SARS 2. Investigate the origins of COVID-19. “Theories of accidental release from a lab and zoonotic spillover both remain viable. … We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data.”

May 26, 2021. US Senate votes unanimously to require the DOJ to “declassify information about any links between China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology and Covid-19.” Forbes

May 27, 2021. PRC Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian’s Regular Press Conference: “What secrets are hidden in the suspicion-shrouded Fort Detrick and the over 200 US bio-labs all over the world? In July 2019, there were reports on the unexplained outbreaks of respiratory disease in northern Virginia and on the subsequent EVALI outbreaks in Wisconsin.  What’s hidden there? When will the US release detailed data and information on relevant cases? It owes an explanation to the world.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China

China Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian's Regular Press Conference on May 27, 2021.  Asked for investigation of Fort Detrick coronavirus origins.
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1879105.shtml

June 18, 2021. Jesse Bloom: The origin and early spread of SARS-CoV-2 remains shrouded in mystery. Here I identify a data set containing SARS-CoV-2 sequences from early in the Wuhan epidemic that has been deleted from the NIH’s Sequence Read Archive. I recover the deleted files from the Google Cloud, and reconstruct partial sequences of 13 early epidemic viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences in the context of carefully annotated existing data suggests that the Huanan Seafood Market sequences that are the focus of the joint WHO-China report are not fully representative of the viruses in Wuhan early in the epidemic. Recovery of deleted deep sequencing data sheds more light on the early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 epidemic

July 20, 2021. “House Democrats killed a bill Tuesday that would have required the White House to declassify intelligence related to the origins of the COVID-19 virus after the proposal from Sen. Hawley of Missouri and Sen. Braun of Indiana passed unanimously in the Senate.” Federalist

House Democrats block declassify evidence origins COVID-19 Wuhan China

July 23, 2021. The Justice Department dropped (Visa fraud) cases against five visiting researchers accused of hiding their affiliations with China’s military. A Justice Department spokesman says, ‘We have determined that it is now in the interest of justice to dismiss them. U.S. Drops Visa Fraud Cases Against Five Chinese Researchers Wall Street Journal

July 26, 2021. China reiterates calls to investigate Fort Detrick for coronavirus origins. China

July 26, 2021. China reiterates calls to investigate Fort Detrick for coronavirus origins.
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1895104.shtml

August 26, 2021. DNI publishes UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT ON COVID-19 ORIGINS

After examining all available intelligence reporting and other information, though, the IC remains divided on the most likely origin of COVID-19. All agencies assess that two hypotheses are plausible: natural exposure to an infected animal and a laboratory-associated incident.

September 1, 2021. The WHO Hub for Pandemic and Epidemic Intelligence is officially inaugurated. A collaborative intelligence trust architecture will enable insights that combine both open (publicly available) and closed (not publicly available) data from both private and public sources. Developing a trust architecture for pandemic and epidemic intelligence is a considerable undertaking that touches on many aspects: governance, legal frameworks and data-sharing agreements; data solidarity, fairness and benefits sharing; transparency about how pandemic and epidemic intelligence outputs are used; openness of technology solutions and artificial intelligence applications; security of data; combating misinformation and addressing infodemics; privacy by design principles; and public participation and people’s data literacy. It is based in Berlin. The WHO andAngela Merkel clearly use some symbolism related to the United States. I don’t understand the message.

September 6, 2021. The Intercept publishes 900 pages of documents on EcoHealth Alliance’s study in China. NEW DETAILS EMERGE ABOUT CORONAVIRUS RESEARCH AT CHINESE LAB

September 9, 2021. Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus of the WHO calls for a “Pandemic Treaty or other legally binding instrument” to implement the WHO’s protocols in response to Pandemics.

September 20, 2021. DRASTIC Research: DRASTIC was recently made aware of documents provided by a whistleblower, which show that EcoHealth Alliance (EHA) in concert wIth the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) attempted to carry out advanced and dangerous human pathogenicity Bat Coronavirus research that would clearly qualify as Gain of Function (GoF), in a grant proposal submitted to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 2018. DRASTIC Analysis of the DEFUSE Documents.

September 20, 2021. Results of a large survey of bats in China for coronavirus doesn’t find any RaTG13 that was supposedly found by Shi Zhenli in 2013. Several SC2r-CoVs, including RaTG13, RmYN02, and RpYN06, were found in bats from Tongguan and Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. Surprisingly, we failed to find any SC2r-CoVs in this study, despite the fact that we collected 17,504 samples in 66 different bat species throughout significant parts of China between 2010-2021, including the border places where RaTG13, RmYN02, and RpYN06 were found or nearby, the suspected R. affinis and R. pusillus with large sampling sizes, and the mountainous areas around Wuhan city. A comprehensive survey of bat sarbecoviruses across China for the origin tracing of SARS-CoV and SARSCoV-2

September 24, 2021. Nature: Scientists have found three viruses in bats in Laos that are more similar to SARS-CoV-2 than any known viruses. Researchers say that parts of their genetic code bolster claims that the virus behind COVID-19 has a natural origin — but their discovery also raises fears that there are numerous coronaviruses with the potential to infect people. … To make the discovery, Marc Eloit, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and his colleagues in France and Laos, took saliva, faeces and urine samples from 645 bats in caves in northern Laos. In three horseshoe (Rhinolophus) bat species, they found viruses that are each more than 95% identical to SARS-CoV-2, which they named BANAL-52, BANAL-103 and BANAL-236. Closest known relatives of virus behind COVID-19 found in Laos

September 28, 2021. A book by Sherri Markinson, What Really Happened at Wuhan, goes on sale. A video exposes some misinformation in the book.

The video explains that the secret leaked Chinese document referenced in Markinson’s book was actually a Chinese book that was on sale at Amazon, unavailable now. There was a Chinese review of the book translated to English which stated that “This book suspects that the SARS virus was actually produced by a foreign laboratory.” Obviously an original source book needs to be located and translated to English. This type sourcing is poor.

September 30, 2021. Scientists discuss how the #COVID19 pandemic began in a panel hosted by Science Magazine. I transcribed some of the comments from Jesse Bloom on the RaTG13 and BANAL viruses which have been in the press recently. Linfa Wang asked the question if SARS 1 was manmade as well after the discussion.

Jesse Bloom: The question is, how did those bat SARS-related coronaviruses that are the direct ancestors of SARS CoV 2 get to Wuhan and start spreading in humans, and that question I don’t think we’re further along.

Richard Cohen: But Jesse even if researchers found a bat coronavirus that was 99.9% the same as SARS CoV 2, you would still ask…

Jesse Bloom: No, Richard, I think if you get up to 99.9 or 99 point, I mean honestly you’d probably expect the (garbled) to be more like 99.98%, … then I think you’re starting to talk about something extremely proximal, and then wherever that virus was, you’d think that’s probably how it got to humans, but a virus like the one you’re describing, which is called BANAL 2052, RaTG13 is about 96%, and this one’s like a little bit more than that, so less than 97%, so those are closely related, but it’s but it’s not like ‘you’re dad,” it’s like your great great great great great great grandfather.”

Linfa Wang: What do you think of SARS 1? Have we resolved the natural origins of SARS 1 or is it manmade as well?

October 1, 2021. The Intercept publishes another article: NIH BAT CORONAVIRUS GRANT REPORT WAS SUBMITTED MORE THAN TWO YEARS LATE

TO BE CONTINUED

Everyone has their microscopes out looking for the origins of COVID-19. It may be helpful to back up and look at the big picture to find where to put the microscopes. The bigger picture suggests that several viruses may have been deliberately released over the decades. This article is not a proof of such a theory, but it is evidence that makes me suspect so. There is a lot more that I will put in this reference base over time. I consider this to be a parent reference base that others can refer to and write articles. If you have any suggestions on some areas of research that you would like to see included, you can let me know on here, (WordPress), Twitter, or my Facebook group.

1971. Gerald Durrell, a British naturalist, opened a branch of Wildlife Preservation Trust International in the United States.

1994. Hendra Virus outbreak, Australia. Here are some facts taken from a podcast called “How it all started.:” A mare named Drama Series fell ill and died in a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. 20 race horses subsequently fell ill, 13 died. A trainer died when the disease jumped to humans. Hume Field was asked to investigate the deaths. He captured animals in a field where Drama Series was grazing to try and find the origin of the virus. He found that a species of bat called Flying Fox that had antibodies of the same virus. They named the virus Hendra virus after Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane. Wired reports that the virus does not transmit easily between humans.

1996-2000. Shi Zhengli works on and receives her Ph.D in Virology fromMontpellier University II, France. Zhengli “is said to be as fluent in French as in English.” Prior to working on her Ph.D she worked at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. She returned to WIV after receiving her Ph.D and initially focused her work on viruses in crabs and shrimp. Science

1997. The Consortium for Conservation Medicine was established in 1997. Borgen Project.

1997. In 1997, an avian influenza A virus of subtype H5N1 first demonstrated its capacity to infect humans after causing disease outbreaks in poultry in Hong Kong SAR, China. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

19971999. Nipah Virus, Malaysia. Facts taken from video below. Nipah Virus kills 40% of those it infects. The virus had likely been around for millions of years, but it only killed first person in 1997.  All of the victims were near pig farms.   Investigations determined the virus was in pigs.  Malaysia slaughtered all of the pigs, and 2 years later the virus was gone. 

1998. Peter Daszak becomes a guest researcher at the CDC. The CDC says a guest researcher allows “qualified research investigators to use CDC facilities to take part in CDC research investigations or carry out their own research.” Daszak says this is when he began specializing in bat viruses. Daszak said he got his first “R01” around this time for the Nipah Virus. (Note: details needed). Daszak said he “developed a multidisciplinary approach combining fieldwork, phylogenetics, virology, and mathematical modeling to isolate and characterize NiV from bats, analyze transmission dynamics, and identify the cause of its emergence.” I’m thinking he didn’t develop any mathematical models himself. I think he brought his theories and knowledge on how viruses “jumped” between species and the CDC modeled it for him mathematically. That’s a guess. In any case this mathematical spillover model would later become the basis for USAID’s “PREDICT” program. Further information from Daszak:

“Since working at the CDC Pathology Activity in 1998 during the Nipah virus outbreak, I have specialized in the ecology of viruses emerging from bats. Under my first Nipah virus R01, I developed a multidisciplinary approach combining fieldwork, phylogenetics, virology, and mathematical modeling to isolate and characterize NiV from bats, analyze transmission dynamics, and identify the cause of its emergence.”  BIO SKETCH: “Guest Researcher, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)” Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, page 24

Around 1998. “Previous experience of modeling disease emergence: Our group has used mathematical models to test hypotheses on zoonotic disease emergence for over 15 years. We use computational models that are tailored for the specific pathogen type or combination of hosts involved, and parameterize these with extremely detailed datasets specific for the emergence event. We then run simulations to test hypotheses on the spillover of viruses and the emergence of zoonoses. For Nipah virus (NiV), another bat-borne zoonosis, we obtained data from pig production facilities in Malaysia ( 110, 111), from experimental infection of bats and in vitro under BSL-4 conditions for viral transmission parameters ( 112, 113). We used this approach to demonstrate the cause of NiV emergence ( 111). We have successfully used similar approaches to demonstrate viable causal mechanisms for the emergence of Hendra virus ( 114), Avian influenza ( 115-117) and West Nile virus ( 118-120). Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, page 124

1999. Peter Daszak’s bio says he was awarded a “Meritorious service award” by the CDC in 1999. I can’t find any information on this award. I can’t find a list of other people awarded this type of award, or any information on an award given to Peter Daszak.

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2000. Peter Daszak’s bio sketch says he was “Keynote speaker Merieux Foundation Conference on Emerging paramyxoviruses, France (2000).” Source: Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence, NIAID grant 2014.

2000. Shi Zhengli receives her Ph.D in Virology fromMontpellier University II, France.

Approximately June 5, 2001. Peter Daszak begins a “collaboration” with China. From notes in his Biographical Sketch Daszak had a “collaboration” with China at a “high level” for “12 years” previous to the date June 5, 2013. Daszak said he has a “proven capacity to conduct disease surveillance in humans and wildlife in the markets where SARS emerged, and where we have collaborated at a high level for 12 years.”

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September 11, 2001. Never Forget

September 18, 2001. Soon after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, letters laced with anthrax began appearing in the U.S. mail. Five Americans were killed and 17 were sickened in what became the worst biological attacks in U.S. history. FBI Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is anthrax-attacks-fbi-letter.jpeg

October 16, 2002. Two of the nation’s top military and civilian medical research institutes unveiled plans yesterday to work together on a huge expansion of high-security laboratories at Fort Detrick to devise better defenses against bioterrorism and emerging diseases. The first stage will be construction, beginning in 2004, of a $105 million laboratory equipped to handle the deadliest organisms in existence, including the Ebola virus.  The so-called Biosafety Level 4 lab will be operated by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, whose main campus is at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda.  After the NIAID lab is built, officials plan to seek roughly $1 billion to build new laboratories for the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, the top military biodefense center. … The plans at Fort Detrick are only a small part of an unprecedented national building boom in bioterrorism research, set off by the Bush administration’s decision to quadruple biodefense funding to nearly $6 billion a year.  The expansion was prompted by the anthrax-laced letters that killed five people and shut down federal buildings last year.  In addition to the Fort Detrick plans, a consortium including the University of Maryland at Baltimore and the Johns Hopkins University plans to compete for NIAID funding to become a “Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense.” … They note that FBI investigators apparently believe the anthrax attacks were most likely carried out by an American with ties to the existing U.S. biodefense program. Fort Detrick is the main repository of the Ames strain of anthrax used in the attacks, though it has been used in at least two dozen other labs. … But Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of NIAID, said the rapid expansion is critical if the country is to be defended against terrorism.  “Biodefense research involves very small amounts of [dangerous] material,” Fauci said. “We’re trying to do research to protect the population, not to make weapons.” PLANS FOR FORT DETRICK LAB EXPANSION

November 2002. SARS-Coronavirus first reported in Guangdong Province, China. Daszak, Zhengli, Hume Field and Linfa Wang report: Because of the sudden and unpredictable nature of the SARS outbreaks that started in November 2002 in southern People’s Republic of China, structured and reliable epidemiologic studies to conclusively trace the origin of SARS-CoV were not conducted. Review of bats and SARS.

Late 2003. H5NI Influenza, “bird flu,” spreads out of China to the world.

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https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

January 21, 2004. Peter Daszak investigates the origins of Nipah Virus in Malaysia. They travel to an island and find the virus in Flying Fox bats. The Consortium for Conservation Medicine, Wildlife Trust, Harvard, and Johns Hopkins were there.

March 25, 2004. This is the first reference to the term “EcoHealth” that I have found. Peter Daszak becomes a founding co-editor EcoHealth Journal. March 25, 2004 is the date of first publication of the journal. The first article in the journal is: “A Transdisciplinary Imperative for a Sustainable Future, co-authored by Daszak.” I don’t have access to the article.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ecohealth-journal.png
https://link.springer.com/journal/10393/volumes-and-issues/1-1

Spring 2004. “On a breezy, sunny spring day in 2004, she (Zhengli) joined an international team of researchers to collect samples from bat colonies in caves near Nanning, the capital of Guangxi.” “…Shi and her colleagues had to hike for hours to potential sites and inch through tight rock crevasses on their stomachs.” “These expeditions were part of the effort to catch the culprit in the SARS outbreak, the first major epidemic of the 21st century.” How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus

March-December 2004. “In this study, conducted March to December of 2004, we sampled 408 bats representing nine species, six genera, and three families from four locations in China (Guandong, Guangxi, Hubei, and Tianjin) after trapping them in their native habitat. (Table 1)Bats are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses

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https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Li-et-al_Science_Bats-as-reservoir-for-SARS.pdf

A complete genome sequence was determined directly from PCR products from one of the fecal samples (sample Rp3) that contained relatively high levels of genetic material. The genome organization of this virus (Fig. 1), tentatively named SARS-like coronavirus isolate Rp3 (SL-CoV Rp3), was essentially identical to that of SARS-CoV, with the exception of three regions (Fig. 1, shaded boxes). The overall nucleotide sequence identity between SL-CoV Rp3 and SARS-CoV Tor2 was 92% and increased to È94% when the three variable regions were excluded. The variable regions are located at the 5¶ end of the S gene (equivalent to the S1 coding region of coronavirus S protein) and the region immediately upstream of the N gene. These regions have been identified as Bhigh mutation[ regions among different SARS-CoVs (5, 16, 17). The region upstream of the N gene is known to be prone to deletions of various sizes (5, 16, 18).

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is figure-1-ecohealth-2004-study.png
https://www.ecohealthalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Li-et-al_Science_Bats-as-reservoir-for-SARS.pdf

She Zhengli is pictured below releasing a bat after taking samples from it in 2004. Images are from an archive of a Chinese article since removed.

Shi Zhengli releases a bat in Southern China in 2004 after taking samples for coronavirus studies.
Shi Zhengli and her team had to go to some dangerous places to collect bats.

September 29, 2004. Representatives from the World Health Organization, United Nations, CDC and so forth meet at Rockefeller University to discuss “One World, One Health.” Here, they propose to surveil the World in the name of Health.

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https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

December 2004. WHO discusses WHO global influenza preparedness plan in Geneva, Switzerland. This new plan redefines the phases of increasing public health risk associated with the emergence of a new influenza virus subtype that may pose a pandemic threat, recommends actions for national authorities, and outlines measures to be taken by WHO during each phase. This should result in greater predictability of the measures to be taken by the various partners involved, including WHO, during the different phases of the pandemic, and should improve international coordination and transparency in recommended national measures.

December 14, 2004. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has announced the start of its first human trial of a vaccine for SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), less than 2 years after the disease was first recognized.  The agency will test the vaccine for safety and the ability to stimulate an immune response in 10 healthy volunteers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., the NIAID said in a news release yesterday.  Officials said the vaccine was developed with “unprecedented speed,” given that SARS was not recognized as a new infectious disease until March 2003 and that it often takes decades to develop a successful vaccine. “We have dramatically cut vaccine development time with powerful new tools from two different fields, molecular biology and information technology,” stated NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, MD.  The vaccine is innovative in that it consists of a small ring of SARS coronavirus DNA that encodes the virus’s “spike” protein, which helps the virus attach to human cells, the NIAID said. In contrast, conventional vaccine technology usually involves the use of a weakened or inactivated form of the whole virus.  Chinese researchers began clinical trials of another experimental SARS vaccine, using inactivated SARS virus, last May, the NIAID noted. NIAID starts first US human trial of SARS vaccine

Sometime 2005. USAID increases their surveillance capabilities. “Since 2005, USAID has strengthened the capacities of more than 50 countries for monitoring the spread of H5N1 avian influenza among wild bird populations.” USAID does not describe their surveillance project as PREDICT at this point. They do not describe their surveillance methods. USAID does not mention conducting surveillance in China before SARS 1 in this document.

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October 28, 2005. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak “Bats are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses.” This paper first establishes that SARS-Coronavirus originated in bats. (The civet was first thought to be the source of the virus. They said the civet was a link in the chain).

Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak published a paper which established that bats were the natural reservoirs of the first SARS outbreak, not civets.

November 2005. In a November 2005 speech at the National Institutes of Health, Bush laid out proposals in granular detail — describing with stunning prescience how a pandemic in the United States would unfold. Among those in the audience was Dr. Anthony Fauci, the leader of the current crisis response, who was then and still is now the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. … According to Bossert, who is now an ABC News contributor, Bush did not just insist on preparation for a pandemic. He was obsessed with it. “He was completely taken by the reality that that was going to happen,” Bossert said. George W. Bush in 2005: ‘If we wait for a pandemic to appear, it will be too late to prepare

December 20, 2005. The “Beijing Principles” are created at a series of international Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) meetings. The attendees pledge to control H5N1 with global disease surveillance.

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https://www.preventionweb.net/files/8627_OWOH14Oct08.pdf

Sometime 2006, approximately. EcoHealth Alliance begins a 5-year study on Nipah virus.

September 2006. “Faecal samples of 24 R. sinicus individuals were collected from distinct locations within China during September 2006.” … “Two positive samples, designated Rs672 and Rs806, were collected from two relatively distant locations, in Guizhou and Hubei provinces, respectively.” … “For Rs672, the sequences for all putative coding regions were obtained. For Rs806, we failed to recover its full-length genome sequence.” The details of this study were published by Shi-Zhengli et al in 2010: Intraspecies diversity of SARS-like coronaviruses in Rhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of SARS coronaviruses in humans

December 12, 2006. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak: Review of bats and SARS. Recently, we and another group independently identified several horseshoe bat species (genus Rhinolophus) as the reservoir host for a large number of viruses that have a close genetic relationship with the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Our current research focused on the identification of the reservoir species for the progenitor virus of the SARS coronaviruses responsible for outbreaks during 2002-2003 and 2003-2004.”

October 2007. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Peter Daszak: Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts. “Knowing the high genetic diversity of bat CoVs, we carried out a systematic phylogenetic study of the viruses and their hosts to examine evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and bats. The aim was to further investigate the origin of SARS-like CoVs and SARS. Our results suggest host-pathogen divergence and host shifts in the recent evolutionary history of these viruses and their hosts. We discuss host behavioral traits and viral traits that might have given rise to these patterns and comment on the implications of our findings for the emergence of SARS-CoV.” Below is Figure 2, Distribution of coronaviruses isolated in the People’s Republic of China.

Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak Distribution of Coronaviruses in southern China
http://Figure 2. Distribution of coronaviruses isolathttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/10/07-0448-f2ed in the People’s Republic of China

November 27, 2007. On 27-29 November 2007, WHO convened the first meeting of the Pandemic Preparedness and Response Guidance Revision Working Group in Geneva, Switzerland. Experts in the field of communicable diseases and influenza, emergency and pandemic planning, and communications from national and international technical institutions, UN/international organizations and WHO staff from headquarters, regional and country offices convened to identify areas requiring updating. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

December 12, 2007. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin: “The key difference between these two groups of closely related viruses lies in their S protein sequences, specifically, the RBM, in which there are two deletions in the bat SL-CoV S sequences.”

February 21, 2008. EcoHealth publishes Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Image is Figure 3: Global distribution of relative risk of an EID event. “Maps are derived for EID events caused by a, zoonotic pathogens from wildlife, b, zoonotic pathogens from non-wildlife, c, drug-resistant pathogens and d, vector-borne pathogens. The relative risk is calculated from regression coefficients and variable values”

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October 14, 2008. The World Health Organization, World Bank, et al publish a summary of some of the things they discussed at Rockefeller University back in September 2004.

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2009. H1N1 “Pandemic.” USAID launches the Emerging Pandemic Threats program. The screenshots below haves the 2009 date and reference to H1NI. The entire document is included in a section dated April 2013, which USAID expanded the program.

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March 5, 2009. Shi Zhengli co-authors Differential stepwise evolution of SARS coronavirus functional proteins in different host species. It discusses how the spike protein which came to be in the SARS-coronavirus evolved: “Our results suggest that most functional proteins of SARS-CoV have experienced a stepwise adaptive evolutionary pathway. Similar to previous studies, the spike protein underwent strong positive selection in the early and middle phases, and became stabilized in the late phase. In addition, the replicase experienced positive selection only in human patients, whereas assembly proteins experienced positive selection mainly in the middle and late phases.” I’m not sure what that means, but I read it in the context that man can help these proteins “evolve” in a lab. How then did SARS2 acquire its furin cleavage site? As Nicholas Wade wrote in The origin of COVID: Did people or nature open Pandora’s box at Wuhan? on SARS 2 (COVID 19): “How then did SARS2 acquire its furin cleavage site? Either the site evolved naturally, or it was inserted by researchers at the S1/S2 junction in a gain-of-function experiment.”

April 2009. WHO revises its pandemic preparedness and alert plan. WHO 2009 Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response. Many say the WHO lowered the standard for definition of a “Pandemic.” For example: WHO Changed Definition of Influenza Pandemic: Cohen and Carter state that the WHO changed the definition of an influenza pandemic by excluding reference to the words “with enormous numbers of deaths and illness.” What the article fails to state is that the WHO made two changes; the second change was to drop the requirement for a new sub-type with a simple reassortant virus meaning that many seasonal flu viruses could be classified as pandemic influenza. … If the WHO guidelines in effect at the time that the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was identified in the USA in April 2009 then it would never have been declared a pandemic as it was not a new sub-type, was not causing enormous numbers of deaths and illness, and a significant number of people had already been exposed to an immunogenically similar virus. The fact that only one vaccination was required for all but young children is another sign that this was not an immunogenically novel virus.

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June 11, 2009. In late April, WHO announced the emergence of a novel influenza A virus. This particular H1N1 strain has not circulated previously in humans. … On the basis of available evidence and these expert assessments of the evidence, the scientific criteria for an influenza pandemic have been met. I have therefore decided to raise the level of influenza pandemic alert from Phase 5 to Phase 6. The world is now at the start of the 2009 influenza pandemic. Transcript of statement by Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization

February 6, 2010. Shi Zhengli alone authors “Bat and Virus.” Summarizes the rapid increase in the number of known viruses in bats after the 2002-2003 SARS-coronavirus outbreak.

April 7, 2010. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper Hantavirus outbreak associated with laboratory rats in Yunnan, China about how a virus escaped from research institutions in China in 2003. The virus was hantavirus, causing hemorrhagic fever. The virus is spread only by rats to humans. Humans cannot spread the virus. The rats escaped or were released. This is a high-mortality virus at around 35%. From the paper: “An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred among students in a college (College A) in Kunming, Yunnan province, China in 2003. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of hantavirus antibodies and antigens in laboratory rats at College A and two other institutions. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 15 additional individuals other than the index case in these three locations. Epidemiologic data indicated that the human infections were a result of zoonotic transmission of the virus from laboratory rats.”

September 2010. EcoHealth Alliance formed with the merger of Wildlife Trust and the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. Corporate Eye. EcoHealth

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https://www.corporate-eye.com/main/wildlife-trust-rebrands-as-ecohealth-alliance/

October 27, 2010. Peter Daszak discusses work and research at the London Zoo where they had insects. “When I first started working wildlife diseases, it was the giant hissing cockroach.” He goes on to explain their virus. He then moves on to snails that were infected with a virus, and were about to become extinct. “A whole species. 14 individual snails. They had died out in the wild. And these guys were so serious because in that collection they had 10 whole species nowhere else on the planet. And they were dying.” Goes on to discuss how frogs were dying from virus. “What’s going on in the environment that’s causing these problems.” Daszak questions if humans are likely to face an extinction disease event like the snails in 1995 London Zoo. I question if researchers at London Zoo were using viruses targeting DNA in a manner that could be used for Eugenics. Daszak shows a “hotspots” map of the world where viruses are likely to “spill over” based on mathematical models.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPFGX7t4KJE

May 31, 2011. EcoHealth Study released: “Intensive Agriculture Implicated in Transmission of Deadly Nipah Virus to Humans“. “Our work shows that repeated spillover of Nipah virus from bats into a very structured, intensive piggery led to the emergence of this disease,” said Dr. Peter Daszak, senior author of the paper and president of EcoHealth Alliance. “This is yet another case of an emerging disease caused by human activity, and puts the focus on us to change the way we mix agriculture and the environment for a healthier planet.” The study involved collaborators in five countries, including ecologists, veterinarians, physicians, and mathematicians.

September 9, 2011. Contagion was released September 9, 2011. This movie raised “threat level” concerns in the public about viruses. The movie was a dramatization of EcoHealth Alliance’s research on Nipah Virus. By raising the threat levels of Pandemics in association with 9/11 they were able to increase demand for research funding.

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September 10, 2011. EcoHealth Alliance comments on move Contagion, stating that it was based on Nipah Virus.

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September 11, 2011. Ten Year Anniversary of 9/11.

April 2012. In Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, workers fell ill in a copper mine shaft full of bats. Shi Zhengli and her team investigate six bat species in this mine shaft 2012-2013. According to Scientific American, “the fungus turned out to be the pathogen that had sickened the miners.” Scientific American did not provide a quote or reference paper from Zhengli on the fungus. Zhengli’s team did however find new viruses in the mine and published their findings on February 18, 2016. The Master’s Thesis of Li Xu of Kumming Medical University first discussed the illnesses of six workers: The Analysis of Six Patients with Unknown Viruses.

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Approximately April 24, 2012. According to an he Chinese military began a secret program to categorize viruses in 2012. “Documents obtained by The Mail on Sunday reveal that a nationwide scheme, directed by a leading state body, was launched nine years ago to discover new viruses and detect the ‘dark matter’ of biology involved in spreading diseases.” “The scheme’s five team leaders include Shi Zhengli, the WIV virologist nicknamed ‘Bat Woman’ for her trips to find samples in caves, and Cao Wuchun, a senior army officer and government adviser on bioterrorism.” How scientists at Wuhan lab helped Chinese army in secret project to find animal viruses | Daily Mail Online,

June 13, 2012. A man in Saudi Arabia is diagnosed with what would be described late as MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). In November 8, 2012, researchers from the Netherlands and Saudi Arabia published Isolation of a Novel Coronavirus from a Man with Pneumonia in Saudi Arabia : “A 60-year-old Saudi man was admitted to a private hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on June 13, 2012, with a 7-day history of fever, cough, expectoration, and shortness of breath. He had no history of cardiopulmonary or renal disease, was receiving no long-term medications, and did not smoke.” “The virus represents a novel betacoronavirus species. The closest known relatives are bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Here, the clinical data, virus isolation, and molecular identification are presented. The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003…”

August 2012. From the paper later published in 2016, we can see that testing of the viruses found in bats in the Yunnan Province mine shaft began by Shi Zhengli’s team as early as August 2012. They described one virus as “SARS-related,” found in Rhinolophus affinus, but they did not name the virus. (I don’t understand why they described some viruses which had names ((HKU8, HKU2, HKU10)) as “unclassified.”)

A summary of viruses collected from bats in a Yunnan Province copper mine shaft.  One was "SARS-related" but unnamed.

October 2012 and April 2013. Studies on bats in Saudia Arabia and MERS are done. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia. “In October 2012 and April 2013, three agencies collected samples from bats in regions where MERS cases had been identified. The agencies are the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia, the Center for Infection and Immunity of Columbia University, and EcoHealth Alliance.” They found 1 bat with a MERS-coronavirus positive signal. “the only MERS-positive signal was obtained in PCR analysis of the T. perforatus bat captured in Bisha near the home and workplace of the MERS index case-patient used to generate the human β-CoV 2c EMC/2012 sequence.” The authors of the study were not at all convinced that bats around Saudi Arabia were the source of MERS. “We sampled only a small sample of bats in Saudi Arabia. Nonetheless, given the rarity of MERS CoV sequences detected by our survey and the broad distribution of MERS cases throughout the Middle East, we speculate that there are probably other hosts. Future work should investigate additional bat and other wildlife species and domestic animals for CoV infection and potential linkage to human disease.” Some posit that the virus may have been first transmitted by bat to camel, then camel to human.

Bat sampling locations in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and 2013 after Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

April 2013. USAID announces a “second line” of defense against Pandemics. The program has four main parts- PREDICT, PREVENT, IDENTIFY, and RESPOND. The PREDICT project subcontracts EcoHealth Alliance and their disease spillover “hotspots” mathematical model. The IDENTIFY project involves the United Nations and the World Health Organization somehow. Thus the World Health Organization has a conflict of interest in any investigations of EcoHealth Alliance or the origins of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

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May 27, 2013. Shi Zhengli’s reference letter from the Director of Wuhan’s Institute of Virology to become part of Peter Daszak’s EcoHealth Alliance team soon to receive funding for study “Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence.” Note that Zhengli has access to coronavirus research on the viruses in the Mojiang mine at this point when she is applying to EcoHealth, but she will not publish the research until February 2016. The delay suggests a collaboration over unpublished data between Zhengli and Daszak and is highly suspicious under the circumstances.

Shi Zhengli Wuhan EcoHealth Alliance

October 30, 2013. Shi Zhengli co-authors Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Still looking for the exact bat-coronavirus to match the 2002-2003 SARS-coronavirus: “Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein.” They modified some viruses: “Replacing the RBD of one SL-CoV S protein with SARS-CoV S conferred the ability to use human ACE2 and replicate efficiently in mice9,13. However, to date, no SL-CoVs have been isolated from bats, and no wild-type SL-CoV of bat origin has been shown to use ACE2.”

Mid-March 2014. “The number of (MERS) cases sharply increased since mid‐March 2014,” WHO says in its latest advisory. But it also notes that most people are infected by other people, not directly by camels.NBC.

March 21, 2014. It is precisely in the P4 Jean Mérieux-Inserm Laboratory (France) that, on March 21, 2014, the Ebola virus responsible for the epidemic was isolated, three days before President Xi Jinping’s visit to Lyon. This epidemiological development and the simultaneity with the Chinese presidential visit made it possible for us to accelerate the completion of the Wuhan BSL4 laboratory in China as part of an unprecedented Sino-French cooperation. 2014 annual report Merieux Foundation.


March 26, 2014. China’s President Xi Jinping leaves the Institut Franco-Chinois in Lyon, France on March 26, 2014. The Chinese President is on a three-day state visit to France.

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https://www.alamy.com/chinas-president-xi-jinping-leaves-the-institut-franco-chinois-in-lyon-france-on-march-26-2014-the-chinese-president-is-on-a-three-day-state-visit-to-france-photo-by-vincent-dargentabacapresscom-image393589868.html

April 2014. Camels are almost certainly the source of the MERS virus that is on the upswing again across the Middle East, researchers reported on Tuesday. NBC

May 27, 2014. Peter Daszak, President of Ecohealth Alliance, awarded NIAID research grant to study coronavirus and bats. Project Title: Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence. The original documents are in this Intercept article: NEW DETAILS EMERGE ABOUT CORONAVIRUS RESEARCH AT CHINESE LAB. Here are some French connections to researchers in the NIAID grant.

The Wuhan Institute of Virology is a World Health Organization collaborating center. It also has partnerships, research collaborations and contracts with universities and research institutes in more than 30 counties and regions including a long-time (>15 years) partnership with EcoHealth Alliance. There are 14 professors, 36 associated professors, and 47 assistant professors conducting research on virology and five of these have been awarded honors in the “Hundred Talents Project”. In 2013, the first BSL-4 lab in China was opened at this Institute in a bespoke facility which was designed with the assistance of the US CDC and L’lnstitut Pasteur of France.

Shi Zhengli received her Ph. D. from University Montpellier II, Montpellier, France (2000) and was awarded Palm Knight Medal for Education, Government of the Republic of France (2016.

Shuyi Zhang graduated from University of Paris XIII, France (1990) and received a Ph.D. from University Pierre & Marie Curie, France (1994).

Xing Yi Ge did Doctoral Training, Unit of Molecular Genetics of RNA Viruses, Department of Virology, Institute Pasteur, Paris, France (2010).

Alice Latinne was a Marie Curie COFUND fellow conducting postdoctoral research at the lnstitut des Sciences de !’Evolution in Montpellier (ISEM, France).

September 30, 2014. The PREDICT program changes from to PREDICT to PREDICT 2 on this date according to notes in Daszak’s 2014 NIAID grant. The goal of PREDICT was to “was to conduct zoonotic virus surveillance in wildlife in 20 countries, and modeling hotspots and drivers for disease emergence.” The goal of PREDICT 2 was “to create and implement a global virus surveillance system in animals and humans and analyze spillover risk.”


October 17, 2014. NIAID announces a funding pause for certain gain-of-function research projects due to a series of laboratory biosafety incidents. NIH Guide Notice NOT-OD-15-01

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February 2, 2015. China has inaugurated its first National Biosafety Laboratory (Wuhan Institute of Virology) to study highly contagious diseases that will include research on live strains of the Ebola virus, the state-controlled China Daily newspaper reported Monday. The center is located in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, and is the first one in the country with the highest level-4 biosafety standards built with French help. Though 10 Chinese research centers are already involved in Ebola research, especially on diagnosis techniques and vaccines, the current center will allow the study of live Ebola virus. “The laboratory fills the domestic void, provides conditions for research on the Ebola virus and brighs our fight against the virus from Africa to domestic laboratories,” National Health and Family Planning Commission Minister Li Bin was quoted as saying by China Daily. The director of the new institute, Yuan Zhiming, said that without a biosafety level-4 laboratory, there was no option of experimenting with live viruses or to test viruses on animals. So far, Ebola research in China has involved using individual genes or proteins, Yuan added. Approval for the laboratory was given by the Chinese government in 2003, after an outbreak of avian flu, however its construction began only in 2011. China opens first high-tech biosafety lab to study Ebola.

October 2015. In October 2015 Shi Zhengli’s team collected blood from approximately 200 people in 4 villages around Shitou and Yanzi Caves near Kunming, China. They found that 3% (a total of 6 people) of people had developed antibodies against coronaviruses from bats without coming into contact with the bats. Scientific American, in my opinion, also overstated the link between RaTG13 and SARS2: “The genomic sequence of the virus, eventually named SARS-CoV-2, was 96 percent identical to that of a coronavirus the researchers had identified in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Their results appeared in a paper published online on February 3 in Nature. ‘It’s crystal clear that bats, once again, are the natural reservoir,” says Daszak, who was not involved in the study.'” 96% is not a close match for SARS. Scientific American. How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus

November 9, 2015. Shi Zhengli co-authors a paper with Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina describing how they created a chimeric virus, SHC014-MA15: A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations1. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system2, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. “...we built a chimeric virus encoding a novel, zoonotic CoV spike protein—from the RsSHC014-CoV sequence that was isolated from Chinese horseshoe bats1—in the context of the SARS-CoV mouse-adapted backbone. The hybrid virus allowed us to evaluate the ability of the novel spike protein to cause disease independently of other necessary adaptive mutations in its natural backbone.”

Baric et al describe how their chimeric virus attaches to human receptors, which they apparently tested on “humanized mice” which were genetically altered to have a human ACE2 receptor: The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis.

December 22, 2015. Shi Zhengli, Lin-fa Wang et al publish “Bat origin of human coronaviruses.” Special attention has been paid to bat coronaviruses as the two emerging coronaviruses which have caused unexpected human disease outbreaks in the 21st century, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are suggested to be originated from bats. … Understanding the bat origin of human coronaviruses is helpful for the prediction and prevention of another pandemic emergence in the future. Note the language “predict and prevent.”

December 30, 2015. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak co-author “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.” They report on a new coronavirus collected from a bat in July 2013 in the mine shaft in Yunnan province. They named the virus SL-CoV WIV16. They said it was a 96% match for human and civet coronaviruses, the highest yet. It’s a matter of small differences though as their table shows.

Genomic comparison of SARS-CoV GZ02 with civet SARS-CoV and other bat SL-CoVs

February 18, 2016. Shi Zhengli co-authors “Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.” This study was based on the previously mentioned April 2012 illness in the mine shaft in Yunnan Province, China. The study found one new coronavirus and 2 or 3 new betacoronaviruses. “… the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species.” MERS, which originated in Saudi Arabia months after the mine shaft illness, was a betacoronavirus. “Only two sequences detected in this study were homologous to betacoronaviruses. One of them (RaBtCoV/4991)
was detected in a R. affinis sample and was related to SL-CoV. The conserved 440-bp RdRp fragment of RaBtCoV/4991 had 89% nt identity and 95% aa identity with SL-CoV Rs672 (Yuan et al., 2010). In the phylogenetic
.” Figure below shows the location of the mine shaft in Yunnan Province and some nearby towns.

Yunnan Province mine shaft and nearby towns

August 8, 2016. The Global Virome Project begins. It is a private effort to categorize all the world’s viruses. It is aimed to launch in 2018. Peter Daszak is the Treasurer and Secretary of the Global Virome Project Leadership Board. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak have co-authored many papers together. Zhengli began publishing studies on viruses outside of China after 2018, although I haven’t seen a reference to Zhengli being directly involved in the Global Virome Project.

Global Virome Project targeting strategy.  Estimate 1.67 million unknown viruses.

December 25, 2016. Shi Zhengli attends and addresses a conference in Pakistan “Strategies to Control Viral Hemorrhagic Fever.” “Prof. Zhengli Shi gave a presentation on the epidemic, animal tracing and diagnostics of the respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Middle East.” Wuhan Institute of Virology

Shi Zhengli ddresses a conference in Pakistan "Strategies to Control Viral Hemorrhagic Fever." representing Wuhan Institute of Virology.

February 23, 2017. Photo shows Shi Zhengli at work at her P4 laboratory at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Shi Zhengli at work in 2017 in P4 facility Wuhan Institute of Virology
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/china/chinas-missing-bat-woman-with-secrets-of-covid-19-origin-denies-defecting-to-west/articleshow/75508804.cms

March 23, 2017. Bernard Cazeneuve cuts ribbon for the P4 laboratory in Wuhan

On the morning of February 23, 2017, Bernard Cazeneuve, Prime Minister of France, paid a visit to Wuhan P4 Biological Security Laboratory during his last leg to China. As a symbol of Sino-French technological cooperation in the field of public health, the P4 laboratory in Wuhan has attracted a lot of attention from the French government. Cazeneuve and his delegation attended the ribbon-cutting ceremony for the laboratory and then inspected the laboratory.

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http://en.hubei.gov.cn/news/newslist/201702/t20170224_955902.shtml

May 2017. Sky News Australia found May 2017 footage showing caged bats and one “hanging off the hat of” a researcher “wearing a mask and glasses but no other protective head covering.” The lab even “filed patents for bat cages.” Daszak, whose EcoHealth Alliance funneled government grants to the Wuhan lab, deleted tweets claiming it held no live bats but hasn’t “admitted he was wrong.” NY Post

June 12, 2017. Global patterns in coronavirus diversity

November 13, 2017. Shi Zhengli and Peter Daszak co-author “Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus.” This report is also on the bats in the mine shaft. “We have carried out a five-year longitudinal surveillance (April 2011 to October 2015) on SARSr-CoVs in bats from a single habitat in proximity to Kunming city, Yunnan province, China, which was mainly inhabited by horseshoe bats.” They found many new viruses. The researchers were still looking for an exact match for SARS: “The primary difference between SARS-CoV and most bat SARSr-CoVs is located in S gene.” The researchers believe that it may be possible that SARS could have originated from these bats, but they don’t make a “smoking gun” claim: “Recombination analysis shows evidence of frequent recombination events within the S gene and around the ORF8 between these SARSr-CoVs. We hypothesize that the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV may have originated after sequential recombination events between the precursors of these SARSr-CoVs.” The researchers were cautious against making a claim that the bats in the Yunnan mine shaft were the origin of SARS when they chose the phrase “new insights into the origin.” David Cyranoski, in Nature, on December 1 2017 wasn’t so cautious: “researchers chasing the origin of the deadly SARS virus have finally found their smoking gun.” He chose the title: “Bat cave solves mystery of deadly SARS virus…

December 29, 2017. Taiwan News: “On Dec. 29, 2017, Chinese state-run TV released a video designed to showcase Shi Zhengli, (石正麗), also known as “Bat Woman,” and her team of scientists at the WIV in their quest to find the origin of SARS. Despite the fact that the scientists work in a biosafety level 4 lab, they show a shocking disregard for safety when handling potentially infectious bats both in the wild and in the lab.” Picture shows swelling on a team member’s arm after a bat bite. This is noteworthy: “However, in an article posted in the China Science Exploration Center, which was later scrubbed by China’s censors, Shi boasted that ‘this job is not as dangerous as everyone thinks.’ Although bats carry many viruses, ‘the odds of directly infecting humans is very small, she wrote.'”

A team member of Shi Zhengli was bitten by a bat, likely in 2004, and showed signs of infection.  China published the video the day before Zhengli received SARS 2 samples from China, according to Taiwan News.

January 4, 2018. DARPA announces start of PREEMPT. Avian influenza (H7N9). MERS coronavirus. Ebola. Hepatitis E. Yellow Fever. Lassa. Zika. When you consider the viral infectious diseases that emerged and reemerged around the world in 2017 alone, what many of them have in common is that they originated in animals and spilled over into humans after a series of mutations that enable the pathogens to jump species. … A new DARPA program called Preventing Emerging Pathogenic Threats, or PREEMPT, seeks to support military readiness by going after new viral infectious diseases at the source, animal reservoirs—the species in which a pathogen lives, multiplies, and potentially evolves into a strain that can threaten humans. PREEMPT aims to advance understanding of viruses and their interaction with animals, insects, and humans, and deliver new, proactive interventions to reduce the risk from emerging and reemerging pathogens. … PREEMPT will have two technical thrusts: development of multiscale models and test beds to quantify the imminent emergence and reemergence of human pathogens; and development of new, scalable approaches to preventing pathogen spillover and transmission from animals and vectors into humans. Understanding how viruses evolve within a species will be a core area of research. Going to the Source to Prevent Viral Disease Outbreaks

January 19, 2018. DARPA solicits proposals for PREEMPT. DARPA is soliciting innovative proposals for research to develop new tools and models to quantify the likelihood of a virus to jump from an animal host into humans, and to develop and validate new scalable technologies to target potential human-capable viral pathogens in wild reservoirs and/or mosquito vectors to prevent transmission to humans.Proposers should explain how they will develop probabilistic models and machine learning techniques that integrate multi-scale and cross-species data (e.g., molecular signatures, demographic, ecological, socio-economic, epidemiological, weather, climate, and other metadata) to quantify a pathogen’s likelihood to cross species barriers and infect humans. … The key outputs for TA1 must include the following: 1)  Integrated models that quantify likelihood of virus jump and can be easily adapted to receive dynamic surveillance and virus data input. Funding Opportunity Number: HR001118S0017

February 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China. The study again references the six individuals found with coronavirus antibodies near the Yunnan province caves: “considering that these individuals have a high chance of direct exposure to bat secretion in their villages, this study further supports the notion that some bat SARSr-CoVs are able to directly infect humans without intermediate hosts.”

March 2018. Taiwan News: “Photos have resurfaced from 2018 showing a warped seal on a freezer door as suspicions grow that the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic could have started at a poorly managed virology lab in Wuhan. … Photos posted by the China Daily in early March, before later being scrubbed, show a seal around a freezer door looking dangerously warped. The original tweet proudly proclaimed the photos as being of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, where it said 1,500 viruses are kept. On March 10, Twitter user John Pollizzi reposted one of the photos showing a badly bent seal and quipped: “I have seen better seals on my refrigerator in my kitchen.” The image went viral, as many other netizens were equally horrified by the apparently lax safety measures, and was published on British media on Sunday (April 19).” My thoughts: The freezer is believed to be -80 Celsius. If you open the door, it’s not sealed anyway. Here is the British article in Express on April 20, 2020: “Terrifying photos hastily deleted by China set coronavirus alarm bells ringing.”

The image where a seal on a freezer in Wuhan Institute of Virology that contained coronaviruses is loose from the door.  Image was probably published by China the December 29, 2019, the day before she received SARS 2 samples from China.

April 4, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-author Fatal swine acute diarrhoea syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin: “Here we report on a series of fatal swine disease outbreaks in Guangdong province, China, approximately 100 km from the location of the purported index case of SARS. Most strikingly, we found that the causative agent of this swine acute diarrhoea syndrome (SADS) is a novel HKU2-related coronavirus that is 98.48% identical in genome sequence to a bat coronavirus, which we detected in 2016 in bats in a cave in the vicinity of the index pig farm. This new virus (SADS-CoV) originated from the same genus of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as SARS-CoV. From 28 October 2016 onwards, a fatal swine disease outbreak was observed in a pig farm in Qingyuan, Guangdong province, China, very close to the location of the first known index case of SARS in 2002…”

July 1, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors “Discovery of Novel Bat Coronaviruses in South China That Use the Same Receptor as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: ” Our study provides further evidence that bats represent the evolutionary origins of MERS-CoV. … However, its evolutionary path from bats to humans remains unclear.”

December 10, 2018. Shi Zhengli co-authors Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. It discusses intermediary hosts (camel, cow, civet, pig) between humans, and the original source of the coronaviruses (bats and rats). It discusses how mutations and recombinations of coronaviruses and how these coronaviruses bind with receptors in animals that were not the original host. The funding of this study, and the research institutions involved are now in the public spotlight. It appears to be essentially a joint study between Chinese military intelligence and the named US government agencies. “This work was jointly funded by the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB29010000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31621061) and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases (R01AI110964) to Z.-L.S; NIH grants (R01AI089728 and R01AI110700) to F.L.; the CAS Pioneer Hundred Talents Program to J.C.; and the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) “One-Three-Five” Strategic Program (WIV-135-TP1) to J.C. and Z.-L.S.”

A figure shows the original and intermediary hosts of coronaviruses that transfer to humans.  No labs are in the figure.  Maybe there should be.

January 7, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors: Characterization of a filovirus (Měnglà virus) from Rousettus bats in China. This article is not available for public view without paying for it, apparently. The abstract essentially says that the newly-identified bat virus is similar to Ebola. “Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV)”…. “are evolutionally and functionally closely related.”

January 28, 2019. Shi Zhengli is elected a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Wuhan Institute of Virology: “On Jan 28, the American Academy of Microbiology elected 109 new Fellows in 2019. The “’Class of 2019′ represents fellows from China, the U.S., France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Israel, Korea, and etc. Prof. SHI Zhengli from Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. Prof. SHI is the Director of the Center of Emerging Infectious Diseases at WIV, Director of the Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety of CAS, and the Editor-in-Chief of Virologica Sinica. She received her Ph.D from Montpellier University II, France, in 2000. Her researches focus on molecular epidemiology and interspecies infection mechanism of emerging viruses of zoonotic origin especially those from bats. She has made distinguished and pioneering achievement in discovery and characterization of important bat-borne viruses. She identified the bat origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and has made crucial contributions to prevention and control of zoonotic emerging infectious disease in China. She had got over 120 publications including research articles on high-impact journals Science, Nature, Cell Host & Microbe, PLoS Pathogens, etc. She won the first prize of Natural Science Award of Hubei Province in 2017 and the second prize of National Natural Science Award in 2018. Fellows of the American Academy of Microbiology, an honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), are elected annually through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology. Formed in 1955, the ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of more than 50,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to promote and advance the microbial sciences. Now there are over 2,400 Fellows representing all subspecialties of the microbial sciences and involved in basic and applied research, teaching, public health, industry, and government service.” Below is a photo that WIV included in their statement.

Shi Zhengli of the Wuhan Institute of Virology is January 28, 2019.  Shi Zhengli is elected a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology

March 11, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Bat Coronaviruses in China. “In this review, we collected information from past epidemiology studies on bat coronaviruses in China, including the virus species identified, their host species, and their geographical distributions. We also discuss the future prospects of bat coronaviruses cross-species transmission and spread in China.” Below is figure “Geographical distribution of bat coronaviruses (CoVs) and their corresponding bat hosts in China.”

Geographical distribution of bat coronaviruses (CoVs) and their corresponding bat hosts in China

May 20, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Bat adeno-associated viruses as gene therapy vectors with the potential to evade human neutralizing antibodies. “The prevalence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been investigated in bat populations, but little is known about the biological properties of this virus. In this study, four full-length bat AAV capsid genes were isolated in China…”

Summer 2019. Daily Mail: “Medical researchers with the Chinese army engineered mice with humanized lungs in 2019 to test viruses on them, it has been reported.  The mice, developed using CRISPR gene-editing technology, were mentioned in an April 2020 study which researched their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the COVID-19 illness, Vanity Fair revealed in its bombshell investigation. Of the study’s 23 co-authors, 11 of them worked for the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, the medical research institute for the Chinese army. Investigators with the U.S. National Security Council, researching the origins of the pandemic, determined that the mice referenced in the study were created in the summer of 2019 – just months before the emergence of the pandemic.”

August 16, 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Detection and characterization of a novel bat-borne coronavirus in Singapore using multiple molecular approaches. It is a study of bats and coronaviruses in Singapore. They note: “Although SADS-CoV (in pigs) was shown to be incapable of infecting humans in its current form, it remains to be seen whether further adaptation or a related virus can spill over into human populations in the future.” Below is figure “Geographical distribution of bat roosts in Singapore.”

Geographical distribution of bat roosts in Singapore

September 2019. Shi Zhentli co-authors Human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in Southern China. “Scientific question: What are the behavioral risks in human-animal interactions that could lead to the emergence of bat coronaviruses in human population. Direct contact with bats was not identified as a risk factor. However, self-reported severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and/or influenza-like illness (ILI) was linked to human interaction with other wildlife and livestock, suggesting that there may be other zoonotic exposures leading to clinical illness in these populations.”

September 12, 2019. “On the September 12, 2019, the virus database at the Wuhan Institute of Virology was taken offline, and with it 22,000 coronavirus samples were gone.” The lab leak, the missing scientists, the cover-up: Piecing together ‘What Really Happened in Wuhan

“Autumn” 2019. The U.S. government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology

Sometime October 2019. “Listen the people that had the most access to the most intelligence, are telling you that the most likely origin of COVID-19, of the Wuhan virus was what happened… was a lab leak at the Wuhan Institute of Virology,” John Ratcliffe, former United States Director of National Intelligence, said. “This is really most likely what happened and it’s more than just a possibility, it’s certainly a probability and it’s probably a certainty.” Intelligence was received that three people working at the Wuhan Institute of Virology had fallen sick in October 2019, two months before the first official case was reported. “What (former Secretary of State) Mike Pompeo and I put out is people became sick at the lab in October and with symptoms that became entirely consistent with what most people have experienced around the world from COVID-19,” Mr Ratcliffe saidThe lab leak, the missing scientists, the cover-up: Piecing together ‘What Really Happened in Wuhan

October 15, 2019. U.S. delegation arrives in Wuhan for Military World Games. A group of 17 athletes from the U.S. Armed Forces has arrived at the airport in the central Chinese city of Wuhan for the up-coming 2019 Military World Games here on Monday midnight. About 300 athletes from the United States are expected to arrive in the next 2 days. The picture below is from opening ceremony on October 18, 2019.

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http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-10/18/c_138482909_87.htm

October 31, 2019. Shi Zhentli co-authors “Filovirus-reactive antibodies in humans and bats in Northeast India imply zoonotic spillover.” “In the Northeast Indian state of Nagaland, local ethnic groups have conducted bat harvests for at least seven generations as a source of food and traditional medicine. These bat hunters are exposed to saliva, blood, and excreta from the bat species Rousettus leschenaultii and Eonycteris spelaea. We conducted a serological survey of both hunted bat species and human hunters to study if humans have been exposed to filoviruses potentially originating from bats.” Figure below shows the “Geographical map of the border region between India and Myanmar.”

Geographical map of the border region between India and Myanmar where serological survey of filoviruses

November 2019. Shi Zhengli co-authors Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Novel RNA Viruses in Wild and Synanthropic Rodents and Shrews in Kenya. “…little is known about the diversity of viruses circulating among rodents and shrews in Kenya, meaning the risk of infectious disease outbreak from these small mammals could be oblivious. This study reports the first surveillance toward understanding the diversity of RNA viruses carried by rodents and shrews in areas of high-potential contact with humans in Kenya through molecular detection.” Figure below is “Map of Kenya showing rodent and shrew sampling sites between August and September, 2016.

Map of Kenya showing rodent and shrew sampling sites between August and September, 2016  from paper Shi Zhengli paper novel RNA Viruses

November 2019. “Three researchers from China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology became sick enough in November 2019 that they sought hospital care, according to a previously undisclosed U.S. intelligence report ...” Researchers “became sick in autumn 2019 ‘with symptoms consistent with both Covid-19 and common seasonal illness.‘” Intelligence on Sick Staff at Wuhan Lab Fuels Debate on Covid-19 Origin – WSJ: Note that the WSJ report references “three researchers” in “November,” of an underlying report that says “several researchers” in “autumn.”

December 30, 2019. At the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Shi Zhengli receives samples of what the WHO would later name COVID-19. Zhengli later denied that they had ever seen the virus before. Zhengli:

We first received the clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 on December 30 2019, which were called back then samples of ‘pneumonia with unknown etiology.’ Subsequently, we rapidly conducted research in parallel with other domestic institutions, and quickly identified the pathogen. The complete genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 was submitted and published via WHO on January 12. Before that, we had never been in contact with or studied this virus, nor did we know of its existence.” Scientific American: “Shi instructed her group to repeat the tests and, at the same time, sent the samples to another facility to sequence the full viral genomes. Meanwhile she frantically went through her own lab’s records from the past few years to check for any mishandling of experimental materials, especially during disposal. Shi breathed a sigh of relief when the results came back: none of the sequences matched those of the viruses her team had sampled from bat caves. ‘That really took a load off my mind,’ she says. ‘I had not slept a wink for days.'”

February 3, 2020. Shi Zhengli co-authors A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. This is the first report of virus RaTG13. An article in Lancet will later claim ” RaTG13, the closest known virus, which was collected in 2013 and published in 2020.” The Lancet article references the

“The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020.” They said the “COVID-19” virus was 96.2% similar to a virus they had discovered: “We then found that a short region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from a bat coronavirus (BatCoV RaTG13)—which was previously detected in Rhinolophus affinis from Yunnan province—showed high sequence identity to 2019-nCoV. We carried out full-length sequencing on this RNA sample (GISAID accession number EPI_ISL_402131). Simplot analysis showed that 2019-nCoV was highly similar throughout the genome to RaTG13 (Fig. 1c), with an overall genome sequence identity of 96.2%.” This does not sound like a very good match for SARS 2, however. They described RaTG13 as the “closest relative” they knew of: “Using the aligned genome sequences of 2019-nCoV, RaTG13, SARS-CoV and previously reported bat SARSr-CoVs, no evidence for recombination events was detected in the genome of 2019-nCoV. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length genome and the gene sequences of RdRp and spike (S) showed that—for all sequences—RaTG13 is the closest relative of 2019-nCoV and they form a distinct lineage from other SARSr-CoVs…” Question: what percentage of similarity would be required to form a very good match?

February 19, 2020. Peter Daszak et al publish a statement in Lancet: The rapid, open, and transparent sharing of data on this outbreak is now being threatened by rumours and misinformation around its origins. We stand together to strongly condemn conspiracy theories suggesting that COVID-19 does not have a natural origin. Scientists from multiple countries have published and analysed genomes of the causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),1 and they overwhelmingly conclude that this coronavirus originated in wildlife,2345678910 as have so many other emerging pathogens.1112 This is further supported by a letter from the presidents of the US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine13 and by the scientific communities they represent. Conspiracy theories do nothing but create fear, rumours, and prejudice that jeopardise our global collaboration in the fight against this virus. We support the call from the Director-General of WHO to promote scientific evidence and unity over misinformation and conjecture.14 We want you, the science and health professionals of China, to know that we stand with you in your fight against this virus. Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19.

February 24, 2020. “A Chinese military scientist with ties to the United States reportedly filed a patent for a COVID-19 vaccine well before the disease was declared a global pandemic.  Yusen Zhou, who worked for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), lodged the paperwork on behalf of the Chinese political party on February 24 2020, according to The Australian newspaper.  That date was just five weeks after China first confirmed human transmission of the coronavirus.  Zhou is also said to have ‘worked closely’ with scientists at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), including Shi Zhengli – the deputy director of the lab who is famous for her research on coronavirus in bats. … Zhou mysteriously died less than three months after he filed the patent. The New York Post claims his death was only reported in one Chinese media report, despite the fact he was one of the country’s most prominent scientists.”  Chinese military scientist ‘filed a patent for a COVID-19 vaccine BEFORE the virus was declared a global pandemic and worked closely with ‘bat woman’ at Wuhan institute

April 18, 2020. “We (France) would like to make it clear that there is to this day no factual evidence corroborating recent reports in the US press linking the origins of Covid-19 and the work of the P4 laboratory of Wuhan, China,” an official at President Emmanuel Macron’s office said.” France says no evidence Covid-19 linked to Wuhan research lab set up with French help

May 2, 2020. Shi Zhengli denies that she has defected or will defect to the “West” with sensitive documents. Fox New. Times of India. Global Times.

June 1, 2020. Jane Qui, in Scientific American, published that SARS 2 was 96% identical to a coronavirus found in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Qui did not give a name for the virus found to be 96% identical to SARS 2. By January 7 the Wuhan team had determined that the new virus had indeed caused the disease those patients suffered—a conclusion based on results from analyses using polymerase chain reaction, full genome sequencing, antibody tests of blood samples and the virus’s ability to infect human lung cells in a petri dish. The genomic sequence of the virus, eventually named SARS-CoV-2, was 96 percent identical to that of a coronavirus the researchers had identified in horseshoe bats in Yunnan. Their results appeared in a paper published online on February 3 in Nature. “It’s crystal clear that bats, once again, are the natural reservoir,” says Daszak, who was not involved in the study. The use of the phrases “crystal clear” and “natural reservoir” in a paragraph that states that RaTG13 is “96% identical” to SARS 2 can lead to a false impression that the virus RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS 2 in my opinion. How China’s ‘Bat Woman’ Hunted Down Viruses from SARS to the New Coronavirus by Jane Qiu

July 15, 2020. Shi Zhengli answers written questions of Science Magazine about the origins of SARS 2, lab leaks, and other questions. Zhengli said that RaTG13 evolving to SARS 2 is nature is “only theoretically possible” and “the probability is extremely tiny.” Zhengli explains how BtCoV/4991 came to be renamed as RaTG13. WUHAN CORONAVIRUS HUNTER SHI ZHENGLI SPEAKS OUT. Full .pdf of Zhengli’s statements.

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https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf
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https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf
Shi Zhengli disputes theories that RaTG13 could have evolved naturally into SARS 2
https://www.science.org/pb-assets/PDF/News%20PDFs/Shi%20Zhengli%20Q&A-1630433861.pdf

September 2020. A PROGRESS REPORT detailing controversial U.S.-funded research into bat coronaviruses in China was filed more than two years after it was due and long after the corresponding grant had concluded. The U.S.-based nonprofit the EcoHealth Alliance submitted the report to its funder, the National Institutes of Health, in September 2020, while the group was engulfed in controversy surrounding its work with partners in China. NIH BAT CORONAVIRUS GRANT REPORT WAS SUBMITTED MORE THAN TWO YEARS LATE

January 15, 2021. Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology. The U.S. government has reason to believe that several researchers inside the WIV became sick in autumn 2019, before the first identified case of the outbreak, with symptoms consistent with both COVID-19 and common seasonal illnesses. This raises questions about the credibility of WIV senior researcher Shi Zhengli’s public claim that there was “zero infection” among the WIV’s staff and students of SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-related viruses. … WHO investigators must have access to the records of the WIV’s work on bat and other coronaviruses before the COVID-19 outbreak. As part of a thorough inquiry, they must have a full accounting of why the WIV altered and then removed online records of its work with RaTG13 and other viruses. It’s noteworthy that the State Department says that RaTG13 was one of the viruses removed from an online data base at Wuhan Institute of Virology (presumably in September 12, 2021). This is not disclosed in any open-source reporting that I have seen. The Sate Department did not explain the source of their information.

February 10, 2021. WHO issues WHO-convened global study of origins of SARS-CoV-2: China Part

February 18, 2021. Roland Wiesendange of University of Hamburg, Germany, publishes Study on the Origin of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Wiesendanger said he was 99.9 sure that SARS 2 began with a lab leak from the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Wiesendanger listed six circumstantial facts to support his theory, which was translated to English here: Fact-Checking Prof. Roland Wiesendanger Covid Claims About Wuhan Laboratory:

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Roland Wiesendanger
Circumstantial evidence of German physicist Roland Wiesendange that a lab leak of Wuhan Institute of Virology caused the SARS 2 Pandemic.

May 23, 2021. Wall Street Journal publishes Intelligence on Sick Staff at Wuhan Lab Fuels Debate on Covid-19 Origin and misstate what is in US State Department Fact Sheet: Activity at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

April 24, 2021. Daily Mail reports that they have seen documents on secret Chinese army efforts to find animal viruses. Scientists studying bat diseases at China‘s maximum-security laboratory in Wuhan were engaged in a massive project to investigate animal viruses alongside leading military officials – despite their denials of any such links. Documents obtained by The Mail on Sunday reveal that a nationwide scheme, directed by a leading state body, was launched nine years ago to discover new viruses and detect the ‘dark matter’ of biology involved in spreading diseases. One leading Chinese scientist, who published the first genetic sequence of the Covid-19 virus in January last year, found 143 new diseases in the first three years of the project alone. The fact that such a virus-detection project is led by both civilian and military scientists appears to confirm incendiary claims from the United States alleging collaboration between the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) and the country’s 2.1 million-strong armed forces. The scheme’s five team leaders include Shi Zhengli, the WIV virologist nicknamed ‘Bat Woman’ for her trips to find samples in caves, and Cao Wuchun, a senior army officer and government adviser on bioterrorism. Worrying new clues about the origins of Covid: How scientists at Wuhan lab helped Chinese army in secret project to find animal viruses, writes IAN BIRRELL. The “nine years ago” dates the Daily Mails reported Chinese Military project to approximately April, 2012, when workers fell ill in a Mojiang mine shaft. It seems the Daily Mail intended to imply that the workers who fell ill in the mine shaft were part of a Chinese military project.

May 14, 2021. Ralph Baric of the University of North Carolina, a research partner of Shi Zhengli, joins calls for an investigation into the origins of SARS 2. Investigate the origins of COVID-19. “Theories of accidental release from a lab and zoonotic spillover both remain viable. … We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data.”

May 26, 2021. US Senate votes unanimously to require the DOJ to “declassify information about any links between China’s Wuhan Institute of Virology and Covid-19.” Forbes

May 27, 2021. PRC Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian’s Regular Press Conference: “What secrets are hidden in the suspicion-shrouded Fort Detrick and the over 200 US bio-labs all over the world? In July 2019, there were reports on the unexplained outbreaks of respiratory disease in northern Virginia and on the subsequent EVALI outbreaks in Wisconsin.  What’s hidden there? When will the US release detailed data and information on relevant cases? It owes an explanation to the world.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People’s Republic of China

China Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian's Regular Press Conference on May 27, 2021.  Asked for investigation of Fort Detrick coronavirus origins.
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1879105.shtml

June 18, 2021. Jesse Bloom: The origin and early spread of SARS-CoV-2 remains shrouded in mystery. Here I identify a data set containing SARS-CoV-2 sequences from early in the Wuhan epidemic that has been deleted from the NIH’s Sequence Read Archive. I recover the deleted files from the Google Cloud, and reconstruct partial sequences of 13 early epidemic viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences in the context of carefully annotated existing data suggests that the Huanan Seafood Market sequences that are the focus of the joint WHO-China report are not fully representative of the viruses in Wuhan early in the epidemic. Recovery of deleted deep sequencing data sheds more light on the early Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 epidemic

July 20, 2021. “House Democrats killed a bill Tuesday that would have required the White House to declassify intelligence related to the origins of the COVID-19 virus after the proposal from Sen. Hawley of Missouri and Sen. Braun of Indiana passed unanimously in the Senate.” Federalist

House Democrats block declassify evidence origins COVID-19 Wuhan China

July 23, 2021. The Justice Department dropped (Visa fraud) cases against five visiting researchers accused of hiding their affiliations with China’s military. A Justice Department spokesman says, ‘We have determined that it is now in the interest of justice to dismiss them. U.S. Drops Visa Fraud Cases Against Five Chinese Researchers Wall Street Journal

July 26, 2021. China reiterates calls to investigate Fort Detrick for coronavirus origins. China

July 26, 2021. China reiterates calls to investigate Fort Detrick for coronavirus origins.
https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/t1895104.shtml

August 26, 2021. DNI publishes UNCLASSIFIED SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT ON COVID-19 ORIGINS

After examining all available intelligence reporting and other information, though, the IC remains divided on the most likely origin of COVID-19. All agencies assess that two hypotheses are plausible: natural exposure to an infected animal and a laboratory-associated incident.

September 1, 2021. The WHO Hub for Pandemic and Epidemic Intelligence is officially inaugurated. A collaborative intelligence trust architecture will enable insights that combine both open (publicly available) and closed (not publicly available) data from both private and public sources. Developing a trust architecture for pandemic and epidemic intelligence is a considerable undertaking that touches on many aspects: governance, legal frameworks and data-sharing agreements; data solidarity, fairness and benefits sharing; transparency about how pandemic and epidemic intelligence outputs are used; openness of technology solutions and artificial intelligence applications; security of data; combating misinformation and addressing infodemics; privacy by design principles; and public participation and people’s data literacy. It is based in Berlin. The WHO andAngela Merkel clearly use some symbolism related to the United States. I don’t understand the message.

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September 6, 2021. The Intercept publishes 900 pages of documents on EcoHealth Alliance’s study in China. NEW DETAILS EMERGE ABOUT CORONAVIRUS RESEARCH AT CHINESE LAB

September 9, 2021. Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus of the WHO calls for a “Pandemic Treaty or other legally binding instrument” to implement the WHO’s protocols in response to Pandemics.

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September 20, 2021. DRASTIC Research: DRASTIC was recently made aware of documents provided by a whistleblower, which show that EcoHealth Alliance (EHA) in concert wIth the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) attempted to carry out advanced and dangerous human pathogenicity Bat Coronavirus research that would clearly qualify as Gain of Function (GoF), in a grant proposal submitted to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 2018. DRASTIC Analysis of the DEFUSE Documents.

September 20, 2021. Results of a large survey of bats in China for coronavirus doesn’t find any RaTG13 that was supposedly found by Shi Zhenli in 2013. Several SC2r-CoVs, including RaTG13, RmYN02, and RpYN06, were found in bats from Tongguan and Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. Surprisingly, we failed to find any SC2r-CoVs in this study, despite the fact that we collected 17,504 samples in 66 different bat species throughout significant parts of China between 2010-2021, including the border places where RaTG13, RmYN02, and RpYN06 were found or nearby, the suspected R. affinis and R. pusillus with large sampling sizes, and the mountainous areas around Wuhan city. A comprehensive survey of bat sarbecoviruses across China for the origin tracing of SARS-CoV and SARSCoV-2

September 24, 2021. Nature: Scientists have found three viruses in bats in Laos that are more similar to SARS-CoV-2 than any known viruses. Researchers say that parts of their genetic code bolster claims that the virus behind COVID-19 has a natural origin — but their discovery also raises fears that there are numerous coronaviruses with the potential to infect people. … To make the discovery, Marc Eloit, a virologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris and his colleagues in France and Laos, took saliva, faeces and urine samples from 645 bats in caves in northern Laos. In three horseshoe (Rhinolophus) bat species, they found viruses that are each more than 95% identical to SARS-CoV-2, which they named BANAL-52, BANAL-103 and BANAL-236. Closest known relatives of virus behind COVID-19 found in Laos

September 28, 2021. A book by Sherri Markinson, What Really Happened at Wuhan, goes on sale. A video exposes some misinformation in the book.

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The video explains that the secret leaked Chinese document referenced in Markinson’s book was actually a Chinese book that was on sale at Amazon, unavailable now. There was a Chinese review of the book translated to English which stated that “This book suspects that the SARS virus was actually produced by a foreign laboratory.” Obviously an original source book needs to be located and translated to English. This type sourcing is poor.

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September 30, 2021. Scientists discuss how the #COVID19 pandemic began in a panel hosted by Science Magazine. I transcribed some of the comments from Jesse Bloom on the RaTG13 and BANAL viruses which have been in the press recently. Linfa Wang asked the question if SARS 1 was manmade as well after the discussion.

Jesse Bloom: The question is, how did those bat SARS-related coronaviruses that are the direct ancestors of SARS CoV 2 get to Wuhan and start spreading in humans, and that question I don’t think we’re further along.

Richard Cohen: But Jesse even if researchers found a bat coronavirus that was 99.9% the same as SARS CoV 2, you would still ask…

Jesse Bloom: No, Richard, I think if you get up to 99.9 or 99 point, I mean honestly you’d probably expect the (garbled) to be more like 99.98%, … then I think you’re starting to talk about something extremely proximal, and then wherever that virus was, you’d think that’s probably how it got to humans, but a virus like the one you’re describing, which is called BANAL 2052, RaTG13 is about 96%, and this one’s like a little bit more than that, so less than 97%, so those are closely related, but it’s but it’s not like ‘you’re dad,” it’s like your great great great great great great grandfather.”

Linfa Wang: What do you think of SARS 1? Have we resolved the natural origins of SARS 1 or is it manmade as well?

October 1, 2021. The Intercept publishes another article: NIH BAT CORONAVIRUS GRANT REPORT WAS SUBMITTED MORE THAN TWO YEARS LATE

October 5, 2021. Last month, a grant application submitted to the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) revealed that an international team of scientists had planned to mix genetic data of similar strains to create a new virus. The grant application was made in 2018 and leaked to Drastic, the pandemic origins analysis group.  ‘We will compile sequence/RNAseq data from a panel of closely related strains and compare full length genomes, scanning for unique SNPs representing sequencing errors.’ ‘Consensus candidate genomes will be synthesised commercially using established techniques and genome-length RNA and electroporation to recover recombinant viruses,’ the application states. This would result in a virus which had no clear ancestor in nature, a World Health Organization (WHO) expert told The Telegraph. The expert, who asked the paper not to publish their name, said that, if such a method had been carried out, it could explain why no close match has ever been found in nature for Sars-CoV-2. The closest naturally occurring virus is the Banal-52 strain, reported in Laos last month. It shares 96.8 per cent of Covid-19’s genome.  No direct ancestor, which would be expected share around 99.98 per cent, has been found so far.  The WHO expert told The Telegraph that the process detailed in the application would create ‘a new virus sequence, not a 100 per cent match to anything.’ Wuhan scientists and US researchers planned to create a new coronavirus in 2018: Consortium led by Brit Peter Daszak asked DARPA to fund research at lab in city where Covid pandemic began

TO BE CONTINUED